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THROUGH UGANDA TO MOUNT ELGON 



TWO BOOKS ON CENTRAL AFRICA 

UGANDA TO KHARTOUM. 

By Albert B. Lloyd, Author of " In Dwarfland and 

Cannibal Country." Fully Illustrated. Cheap 

Edition. Large crown 8vo, cloth, 5s. 

" In Mr. Lloyd we have a noteworthy example of the sporting 
missionary. His stories of big game shooting are by no means 
the least interesting portions of a book which is full of strange 
incidents and thrilling adventures in a remote and little-known 
corner of the British Empire." — Siatidard. 



TRAMPS ROUND THE MOUNTAINS OF 
THE MOON AND THROUGH THE BACK 
GATE OF THE CONGO STATE. 

By T. Broadwoou Johnson, M.A. With 30 Illustra- 
tions from Photographs. Large crown 8vo, cloth, 6s. 

" Mr. Johnson has had many strange and interesting experiences, 
and he knows how to describe them in plain, vigorous English. 
At the same time he throws a flood of light on the nature of 
British rule and the progress of the mission work now firmly 
established. The book is a valuable addition to our knowledge of 
Equatorial Africa." — The Daily News. 

LONDON : T. FISHER UNWIN 




»'■■' t 4-. 



BAGISHU WARRIORS OF MOUNT ELGOX. 



Frontispiece.] 



THROUGH UGANDA 
TO MOUNT ELGON 

By ]. B. PURVIS 

AUTHOR OF "BRITISH EAST AFRICA AND 
UGANDA," " THE LUMASABA GRAMMAR," ETC. 



WITH A MAP AND 42 ILLUSTRATIONS 



T. FISHER UNWIN 

LONDON: ADELPHI TERRACE 

LEIPSIC: INSELSTRASSE 20 

1909 



(A II rights reserved ) 



TO 
MY WIFE 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 

PAGE 

FROM ENGLAND TO THE HIGHLANDS OF AFRICA . 21 

A land worth seeing — How to get there — German versus 
English enterprise — The journey — Mombasa — Kilindini 
harbour — The native town — Slavery — The enterprise and 
influence of Missions — Transition — Value of coast-lands 
— The Uganda Railway — The journey to the capital. 



CHAPTER II 

THE CAPITAL OP BRITISH EAST AFRICA . . 40 

Nairobi — A bad start — Progress — Strong opinions — 
Elnotty problems — Forcing the hand of the Adminis- 
tration — " Put the native in his proper place " — The 
destiny of the African — Is he capable of mental and 
moral development ? — The Governor of British East 
Africa — The settler — Will he ever be able to make a 
permanent home in the Highlands of Africa ? — The evils 
of competition — The problems of race and colour very 
pressing — Locate the white man as well as the black — Is 
the Asiatic a "settler"? — The intermingling of the 
Aryan and Negro — Develop the country through the 
native — Organise and educate the negro — Disintegration 
of native customs — Taxation — Rearrange old tribal 
systems. 

9 



lo Contents 



CHAPTER III 

PAGE 

THE NATIVE . . , . . .60 

Four millions of natives — The Swahili — Arab and 
African — Arab influence — Swahili nature — " Black 
ivory " — Mohammedan missionaries — Primitive tribes — 
The Wakamba — Ideas of beauty — Religion — The Wa- 
kikuyu — Their industry — Ornaments — Polygamy — 
Unrest — The Masai — "Fierce, nomadic warriors" — 
Nilotic negroes — Pastoral people — Dress — Warriors — 
Houses — Women's work — Engaged — Ear-rings — Sacred 
objects — The Great Spirit — A problem. 



CHAPTER IV 

FEOM NAIROBI TO LAKE VICTOEIA . . .80 

The most beautiful country — The great "fault" — The 
Mau Escarpment — Giant timber — A serious rainstorm — 
Poisoned arrows — Nandi troubles — A caravan cut up — 
Port Florence — Kavirondo peoples — A surprise — The 
tropics indeed — The C.M.S. — The power of example — 
The sight of a lifetime — The day of opportunity for the 
Christian Church — Education or Evangelisation ? 



CHAPTER V 

THE LAKE VICTORIA : ITS SURROUNDINGS AND SCOURGE 93 

First view of Lake Victoria — A sight to enrapture — 
Waiting for breakfast — A picture from fairyland — The 
islanders of Sese — A voyage of discovery — Life hanging 
by a thread — From Uganda to German territory — 
Baganda influence — Dangers of the sea — The Bavuma — 
Steamers — Area and variety of Lake — ^^A round trip — 
Sleeping sickness — Death and desolation — Doctors A. R. 
and J. H. Cook — Sleeping sickness means great suffering 



Contents 1 1 



PAGE 



— Dangerous patients — Spread of the disease — Cause of 
the tragedy — The tsetse fly — The crocodile theory — Is 
there a cure ? — Experiments — A barrage over the Ripon 
Falls — Nearing Uganda. 



CHAPTER VI 

UGANDA : FLORA, FAUNA, AND OTHER THINGS . 113 

Beautiful Entebbe — Capital of civil administration — The 
native opinion — A mistake — The road to Mengo — No 
advance — Appearance of country — A large garden — 
Cotton cultivation — Value of cotton export — Climatic 
conditions — Extent of Uganda Protectorate — Agricultural 
possibilities — Rubber, cultivated and indigenous — A cheap 
concession — Timber — Wild animals — A bull buSalo — 
Death of Dr. Densham — A native report of a lion hunt — 
Insect pests — Mosquitoes and malaria — Value and use of 
mosquito nets — Danger of rest-houses — Necessity of 
change — Protection against sun — Blackwater fever. 



CHAPTER VII 

UGANDA ; ITS PAST CONDITION . . . 135 

The amazement of travellers — Stanley's expectations — 
Concentrated cruelty — Mtesa's smiling welcome — The 
people of Uganda — System of government — Social life — 
The Bahuma — Native wine — The other side of the picture 
— Mtesa, the causer of tears — Mwanga, a cruel son of an 
evil father — Alexander Mackay — "The dark places of the 
earth " — Effect of missionary effort — Expulsion of mis- 
sionaries — Murder of Bishop Hannington — Growth of 
Mohammedanism — Influence of native Christians — 
Rebellion, capture and death of King Mwanga — King 
David — Light and liberty. 



1 2 Contents 

CHAPTER VIII 

PAGE 

UGANDA : ITS PRESENT ADMINISTRATION . . 150 

No Uganda Railway — Porterage system — No relief for 
British taxpayer — Sir H. H. Johnston — Provincial chiefs 
— Pax Britannica — One Governor suggested for East 
Africa and Uganda — Tropical diseases — Native develop- 
ment or revenue — King David at home — Native parlia- 
ment — Regents — Sir Apolo Kagwa, K.C.M.G. — Native 
capabilities and possibilities — Chamber of Commerce and 
Labour problem — Road-making — Waste of labour — Trans- 
port facilities — Need for technical education — Military 
service — Strategic position of Uganda — The Right Hon. 
Winston Churchill and the Baganda. 



CHAPTER IX 

THE SIGHTS OP MENGO .... 175 

Kampala — Nakasero — Uganda Company, Ltd. — Philan- 
thropy and percentage — Cotton ginning and baling — 
Stones sold at cotton price — Uganda nev^spapers — Roman 
Catholic Missions — Roman disunion — C.M.S. head- 
quarters — The Cathedral and congregation — The Uganda 
drum — Missionary meetings — God's Acre — The Soudanese 
Rebellion — Sad days — Mengo Hospital — High School — 
The Bishop's palace. 



CHAPTER X 

THE WORK AND INFLUENCE OF MISSIONS . . 196 

True Socialism — The life of women — Native missionaries — 
Condition of the Church — Appalling numbers — Numerical 
not necessarily moral strength — Danger of numbers — 
Danger of civilisation — The housing problem — Superficial 
character — Evil living — Johnston's opinion as to Uganda's 



Contents 1 3 



PAGE 



need — A Puritan revival — Secular education — Desire for 
knowledge — Intelligent people — The education problem — 
Duties of Church and State — Church government — White 
missionary not permanent— A constitution — Self-support 
and self-extension — Lack of funds and permanent build- 
ings — The crisis of the nation and the Church — Hope — 
Questions of Church practice and discipline — Organisation 
— A division of the diocese. 



CHAPTER XI 

THROUGH USOGA ... . 223 

A journey eastward — Kyagwe — Ham Mukasa — A visit 
to England — Samwili Kangawo — Perfect gentleman — 
Wayside camps — A view of Lake Victoria and Usoga — 
Ripon Falls — Whence the Nile springs — A dangerous 
ferry — A unique welcome — Jinja and its possibilities — 
Prom Lake Victoria to Egypt — Agriculture — Road-making 
— A good centre — Clever thieves — Slow work — Christian 
revenge — Famine — Hut-tax returns — Value of a para- 
mount chief. 



CHAPTER XII 

ON THE MAECH IN UNKNOWN LANDS . . . 241 

Bukedi — River Mpologoma — Dug-out canoes — Papyrus — 
Disenchantment — Strange dwelling-places — Lake Kyoga 
— Floating islands — A spicy experience — Teso country — 
Clothing despised — Remarkable \'illage fences — Curious 
ornaments — The care of children — Precautions for benefit 
of girls — Fear of a mother-in-law — Mission work — -Lake 
Salisbury — A primitive race — Turkana people — Hair- 
dressing and use of pillows. 



14 Contents 



CHAPTEE XIII 

PAGK 

MASABA : COUNTBY, PEOPLE, AND CUSTOMS . . 266 

A cool camp — The largest extinct volcano in the world — 
Mount Elgon and its foothills — Masaba — Primitive 
customs — Caves and cave-dwellers — The wildest people in 
Uganda Protectorate — Native customs — Circumcision — 
Patriarchal government — Clan system — Land laws — 
Heirship — Marriage laws and customs — Dress of married 
woman — Clan marks — Ornaments — Protection of girls — 
Punishment of wrong-doers — Clan fights — Native courtesy 
— Spirit of independence — Jealousy — A father's curse — 
Curious customs. 



CHAPTER XIV 

LIFE AND WORK AMONGST CANNIBALS . . 294 

Lost near Mount Elgon — Quaint figures — Clothing 
despised — Invalid missionaries — A cheap house — Human 
hyaenas — The place of departed spirits — Burial customs — 
The gathering of the clans — The coming of Roman 
Catholics — Laying out a station — Native kindness — 
Progress — A unique church dedication — Variety of work 
— Healing powers of nature — First baptisms. 



CHAPTER XV 

LANGUAGE DIFFICULTIES .... 317 

Preliminary difficulties — Publication of the Lumasaba 
Grammar — A primitive language — Legend about Victoria 
Nyanza Bantu group — Comparative study advised — 
Bantu language characteristics — Confusing similarity 
in Luganda — Perfect grammatical construction — Rich 
vocabulary — How to express abstract ideas — A faithful 
lad — A prayer- and hymn-book — Idiomatic phrases — 
Politeness. 



Contents 1 5 

CHAPTER XVI 

FAQB 

LIGHT AND SHADE ..... 335 

Slow progress — Friendly and trustful natives — Spirit of 
independence — Indian hemp-smoking — Effect of evil 
practices — Native dances — Drink and fighting — Wailing — 
Native industry — Lighthearted geniality — Witchcraft — 
The power of suggestion^Protection against witchcraft 
— No God of love in Masaba — Evil spirits — Altars and 
offerings — Sacrifices — Sacred groves — A liking for football 
— Ghoulish practices — A low standard of civilisation — 
Compensations— Native ability — Open doors. 



CHAPTER XVII 

NATIONALISING AND DENATIONALISING THE NATIVE . 358 

The unsettling of the native mind — Bringing them into 
line — A bad inheritance — Painful memories — The evils of 
armed agents and punitive expeditions — Improvements — 
Possibilities. 

INDEX ....... 363 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PAGB 

BAGisHU WARRioES OP MOUNT ELGON . . Frontispiece 

CROSSING THE RIVER MPOLOGOMA IN A DUG-OUT CANOE . 20 

MASABA CHIEFS ON A VISIT TO THE EUROPEANS . . 25 

TESO HUNTERS FROM THE HINTERL.VND . . . .29 

NATIVE-MADE BRIDGE OVER A DANGEROUS RIVER . . 35 

THE NATIVE AT PLAY . . . . , .41 

BAGISHU GIRLS ...... 47 

TYPES OP WOMEN AND GIRLS, MASABA, MOUNT ELGON . . 51 

A HARD DRINKER AND MEDICINE-MAN ... 61 

BAGISHU ABOUT TO OFFER SACRIFICES . . . .65 

"ENGAGED" GIRLS ...... 76 

MASAI WARRIORS GUARDING A TRAIN ON THE UGANDA RAILWAY 81 

THE HOME OP THE TSETSE PLY . . . . .99 

A GOLDEN-CRESTED CRANE ..... 112 

THE KING OP UGANDA'S OFFICIAL DRUMMER . . . 134 

H.H. KING DAUDI (DAVID) CHWA .... 147 

KING DAVID LEARNING THE MYSTERIES OF A KODAK . . 165 

SIR APOLO KAGWA, K.C.M.G. ..... 159 

INTERIOR VIEW OP MENGO CATHEDRAL .... 174 

ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL, MENGO, UGANDA . . . 174 

17 



1 8 List of Illustrations 

PAGE 
WEDDING PAETY OP BAGANDA LEAVING CHUECH , . 186 

BISHOP TUCKER OF UGANDA IN CAMP .... 193 

PHYSICAI, DBILL AT MENGO C.M.S. HIGH SCHOOL . . 205 

THE VENERABLE T. E. BUCKLEY, B.A., LL.B. . . . 229 

SEMEI KAKUNQULU ...... 238 

HOUSE BUILT ON THE BIVEB MPOLOGOMA . . . 245 

TESO HOUSE AND GRAIN STORE .... 253 

GRAIN STORE IN THE TESO COUNTRY .... 253 

TESO MEN AND BOYS ...... 257 

IVORY PROM KOROMOJO ...... 263 

AN OLD MASABA PATRIARCH ..... 269 

MUGISHU WOMAN WEARING LIP STONE .... 279 

CHARGE OP BAGISHU WARRIORS AT MASABA, MOUNT ELGON . 284 

NATIVE HOUSE BUILDING AT MASABA .... 288 

" A TALL, IMPRESSIVE FIGURE " NEAR MOUNT ELGON . 295 

BAGISHU MARRIED WOMEN ..... 301 

NEW IDEAS m BUILDING NBAS MOUNT ELGON . . 307 

A MUGISHU GIEL HAEPIST ..... 313 

VISIT0E8 TO THE YOUNG WHITE CHIEF . . . 334 

BAGISHU BLACKSMITHS ...... 343 

THE WONDER OP THE WILD MOUNTAINEERS . . . 347 

DOORS THAT ARE BEING OPENED ..... 355 

MAP 

ROUGH SKETCH OF CENTRAL PROVINCE OP UGANDA PRO- 
TECTORATE AS EXPLORED BY THE REV. J. B. PURVIS 220-221 



< 



THROUGH UGANDA TO 
MOUNT ELGON 



CHAPTER I 

FROM ENGLAND TO THE HIGHLANDS 
OF AFRICA 

A land worth seeing — How to get there — German versus 
English enterprise — The journey — Mombasa — KULndini 
Harbour — The native town — Slavery — The enterprise and 
influence of Missions — Transition — Value of coast-lands — 
The Uganda Eailway — The journey to the capital. 

FOR the man who is tired of the beaten 
track, and who wishes to "see things as 
they are" in a land which, up to the last few 
years, was "the Dark Continent" — things that 
are well worth seeing, since they are all that 
remain in the world of a primitive simplicity 
that cannot possibly last much longer — let me 
commend a visit to our East African Empire. 
The " How to get there ? " is no longer a 
2 21 



22 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

problem, or even a trial, in spite of the fact that 
British enterprise played no part in the solution 
of the difficulty. Without so much as an effort 
on the part of British shipowners, the Germans 
have taken possession of East African trade, 
and are even polite enough to call at Dover for 
would-be visitors to East Africa and Uganda. 

Those who prefer a short sea passage have 
only to go overland to Marseilles or Naples, 
from whence they may reach Mombasa in 
fourteen days. 

I do not say that German ships are all that 
can be desired, more especially to the man who 
has not learned to eat pork chop for breakfast, 
when passing down the Indian Ocean in the 
face of a monsoon ; but I understand that 
even such food as a German liner can offer 
is preferable to the diet of — well, amongst 
other things, substantial cockroaches, which 
figured so prominently on some of the older 
boats that once plied between Aden and 
Mombasa. 

Even in the matter of boat and diet a 
choice is given, though some may think the 
choice is between two evils, for whoever 
cannot travel by a German line may try the 
French, and perhaps prefer it. Here, almost 
the only difference between first and second 
class is the difference in the price and sleeping 



A Pleasant Voyage 23 

accommodation. The food of first and second 
class is very similar, and the promenade-deck 
accommodation is the same. 

By either line a very pleasant voyage can be 
made, giving glimpses of Southern France, 
Naples, Vesuvius, Stromboli, Messina, Etna, 
Port Said, the Suez Canal, and Aden — glimpses 
of life and colour which live in the memory 
for ever. 

With little difficulty it is possible to break 
the journey at Port Said, and from thence visit 
the Holy Land or view the sights of Egypt. 

For myself, I kept straight on, thankful for 
the breezes of the Indian Ocean — spicy breezes 
indeed, since they passed over various cattle- 
pens placed immediately in front of my cabin 
window, but nevertheless acceptable after the 
deadly calm and prostrating heat of the Gulf 
of Suez. 

A little speck in the far distance grows 
gradually into shape until it becomes to us, 
after naught but sea and sea and sea, the 
most beautiful island in the world. The ring- 
ting-ting of the engine-room telegraph, and the 
vessel goes slower and slower as we glide into 
the harbour. A sharp command, the loud rattle 
of the anchor chain, and we have finished the 
first stage of our journey to Uganda. Mombasa 
at last ; and all the island seem to have taken a 



24 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

day's holiday to visit the incoming steamer. A 
shoal of boats rush for the gangway, to be 
pushed off and off and off again, to sort them- 
selves into the proper order of boarding. First 
comes the doctor, who, having declared a clean 
sheet, goes off again to shore, his departure the 
signal for another rush of boats of all sorts 
and sizes, with owners of every colour in the 
rainbow. 

"Letters for you from up-country," says 
some one, and I read to find myself located 
to Masaba. 

" Wherever in the world is Masaba ? " thought 
I, and left a question of geography, which 
seemed impossible to solve at the coast, to be 
cleared up when I should reach Mengo, the 
capital of Uganda, and local headquarters of 
our mission ; and in the interval sought a 
closer view of Mombasa, interesting always, 
but doubly so to one who saw it before the 
younger world had begun to cut, and mould, 
and shape, and build as it is doing at the 
present day. 

Remembering my first visit in 1895 to the 
island, with its narrow street of Arab houses, 
old Portuguese fort, innumerable smells, and 
crowds of that happy-go-lucky, but useful, 
species of humanity, the Swahili porter, who, 
with his jolly smile, seemed to have but two 



Old Mombasa 27 

ambitions in life — the first to find out the 
exact state of one's health, with his continual 
" Jambo bwana, jambo ? u hali gani ? " and 
the second to convince the new-comer that 
to go off into the interior without such a 
paragon of usefulness and integrity as the 
speaker would be the height of folly ; I see 
once more the miserable aspect of the island 
in those days ! The one narrow, evil-smelHng 
street above mentioned, an English hospital, 
and Government House standing lonely and 
desolate ; the old native town, a mission hos- 
pital, and for all the rest — not excepting the 
old fort, although it was the home of criminals, 
of porters being kept under lock and key until 
the very moment of marching, and of the 
then Postmaster-General — long grass, trees 
and brushwood, the paradise of snakes, 
leopards, and occasionally lions, which have 
been known to cross the channel from the 
mainland. 

It was known, of course, that Mombasa was 
an island, but very few realised that it pos- 
sessed one of the most magnificent natural har- 
bours in the world, which would eventually 
prove the front door to the whole of Equa- 
torial Africa, British, German, and Belgian, 
and a side-door inlet and outlet to our East 
Indian Empire : for here at Kilindini harbour 



2 8 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

and township begins that stupendous monu- 
ment of skill and incompetency, the misnamed 
Uganda Railway. 

'Tis that has proved the magic wand, and 
changed the whole island so completely that 
it might now be mistaken for a well-planned 
botanical garden with substantial exhibition 
buildings. 

All honour to the men who have laboured 
and suffered and died, some of them, to make 
this reception-room to our British East Africa 
what it is, the daintiest imaginable little coral 
island, with a cathedral, a newspaper, a court- 
house, hotels, roads, tram-line, and railway 
station all its own ! Indeed, there will be 
found every requirement for a growing and 
very much alive little city — every requirement 
but one. 

How pitiable it is that almost the only flag 
the natives see on ships that steam into that 
majestic harbour of Kilindini is the French or 
German ! Surely such a promising bit of our 
Empire should be linked more closely with the 
homeland ; and perhaps at no distant date it 
will be done by a subsidised line of British 
steamers. 

Mombasa, as the port of East Africa, is linked 
to the interior by ties other than the bridge 
which carries the railway. She sets the pace 




TESO HUNTERS FROM THE HINTERLAND. 
29 



The Status of Slavery 31 

for the hinterland, and woe betide those men 
who have presumed to settle inland if Mom- 
basa is neglected. Yea, woe betide the whole 
country and the Government hopes if the 
Kilindini harbour is not developed at an 
early date ! Not Mombasa alone, but all East 
Africa, is waiting for a wharf with capacious 
go-downs and offices. Mombasa must still go 
ahead for the sake of the interior, and it 
should be possible for every kind of inquiry 
to be dealt with the moment a steamer 
arrives. 

There is time for a glance at the native 
town, with its low, square huts thatched with 
palm-leaves, ribs, or mats, to salute the 
little, laughing, fat watoto (children), and to 
see what Mohammedanism and civilisation is 
doing for the recently freed slaves of our 
Empire. 

Perhaps it will be news to many that the 
legal status of slavery in the strip of East 
Africa, running ten miles deep, and which 
really belongs to the Sultan of Zanzibar, was 
only abolished on October 1, 1907. This does 
not mean that slavery was totally abolished, 
for concubines do not come under the new 
Regulations, but it means that a slave-owner . 
must prove his title to the slave. 

In the islands of Pemba and Zanzibar the 



32 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

slave must claim his freedom, before a British 
court, and prove that he has proper m.eans of 
subsistence. 

Not very long ago the only people who had to 
face the problem of freed slaves were the mis- 
sionaries of Zanzibar and Frere Town ; and right 
well they did their work, by turning out what 
seemed a hopeless conglomeration of humanity 
into useful members of society — servant-boys 
and girls, clerks, school teachers, carpenters, 
builders, brickmakers, and even ministers of 
the gospel. 

This was a great deal to do in the midst of 
the very lowest type of Mohammedanism, 
strong chiefly because of its sensuous licence ; 
and it will be readily understood how the 
sudden spurt of civilisation, the labour de- 
mands and moral evils, brought about by the 
building and completion of the Uganda Rail- 
way, combined to almost blot out and make 
impossible the work of the Christian mis- 
sionary at the coast. 

Yet the C.M.S. agents, under their kindly 
bishop, stick to their divinity school, indus- 
trial work, hospital, boarding and high schools, 
and, most difficult of all, open-air preaching in 
the market-place. 

The change wrought in the lives of the 
people at the coast by the Uganda Railway 



The Value of the Railway 33 

is stupendous, as can readily be conceived by 
any one familiar with the old method of 
reaching the interior. 

Every load of from 60 lbs. to 80 lbs. weight 
had to be carried on the head of a porter, 
and sometimes a thousand men, gathered 
together from Zanzibar, Mombasa, and the 
coast strip, would boisterously start off on a 
thousand-mile tramp, from which many of 
them never returned. 

The railway now carries the loads, and the 
men are free in a double sense — free from 
their old slave-owners and free to seek other 
employment. 

Many go off into the interior as merchants 
in a small way, and as they go spread the 
superficial Mohammedanism which makes it 
so easily possible for a man to get rid of an 
uncongenial wife, and at the same time, with- 
out the faintest knowledge of the Koran, obtain 
some standing in the eyes of the supposedly 
big people from the coast. 

Others are finding employment with such 
white men as have realised that the coast- 
lands of Seyidie and Tanaland, though un- 
healthy, are really valuable, and give better 
return than almost any other part of Africa 
when laid under rubber, rice, cotton, fibre, 
and cocoa-nut cultivation. Perhaps nothing in 



34 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

the world gives a more reliable and profitable 
return than a cocoa-nut plantation. 

We have seen the indications of transition at 
the door ; now let us go inside. 

No longer the tramp, tramp, tramp, under the 
broiling sun, over waterless desert, through 
fever-laden swamp or foodless country, for we 
have taken a ticket for Uganda at the cost of 
Rs. 142.5 first class, Rs.71.3 second class, or 
Rs.23.12 third class, and the journey which took 
from two to three months can now be accom- 
plished in as many days. And what a journey ! 
Thick forest, rolling plain, howling wilderness, 
pleasant pasture, hill and dale, mountain and 
valley, rushing river, rippling stream, roaring 
lion, English ox, smart official and naked savage, 
can all be seen in the course of one day, as we 
are hurried from the sea-level, up and up, to 
a height of over 4,000 feet. 

The Wanyika. 

No time now to visit the shy and weakly 
Wanyika people who live near the coast in their 
badly made houses, or to feel anything but 
thankful as the train rushes across the Taru 
Desert, with its euphorbia, mimosa scrub, aloe, 
thorn, and stillness of death : once the bugbear 
of all travellers to the interior by the British 




35 



A Natural Zoo 37 

route ; now not worth considering, except by 
fibre experts, some of whom have found it so 
valuable that a decorticating plant has been 
established at Voi. 

From the railway station at Voi there is a 
good road practically all the way to the snow- 
capped and beautiful mountain of Kilima- 
Njaro, and the country is thickly populated 
and well cultivated by the Wataita people, a 
branch probably of the Gallas. 

These people have brought the cultivation of 
bananas, sweet potatoes, millet, Indian corn, and 
sugar-cane to a fine art with their wonderful 
system of irrigation. For ourselves, we shall 
rejoin our waiting train, after partaking of our 
first meal since Mombasa, provided at a very 
small charge in the Dak bungalow, quite near to 
the railway line. 

How very different from the old days when if 
one wished for a steak, it had to be chosen from 
the innumerable herds of antelope or zebra, then 
shot and skinned and cooked ! 

Not only the Dak bungalow, but the whole 
country onwards from Voi, provides a treat, a 
feast for the eye to the lover of the beautiful 
and the student of nature. The Uganda Railway 
has not driven away the game : wildebeeste, 
hartebeeste, zebra, ostrich, rhinoceri, lions, may 
all be seen during one short run ; and it would 



38 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

be no novelty for a rhinoceros to seek the 
personal acquaintance of a railway inspector, 
or for a lion to paralyse the station staff. I well 
remember two such incidents, and wish I were 
artist enough to picture to you the face of the 
Britisher who, almost overwhelmed with the 
importance of his new position and new white 
suit, had started off down the line on a trolly 
propelled by two Indian coolies. 

When I met them the rhino had, by way of 
protest, smashed the trolly and kept the three 
men some hours shivering and shouting at the 
top of some trees near which he quietly grazed. 
There was black murder in the white man's eye, 
a desire to avenge the loss of dignity and the 
suit besmeared with dirt and blood-stains, as he 
begged me to lend him a rifle and cartridges for 
a short time. 

From Voi, mile 103, we continue the journey, 
and soon realise by the change of atmosphere 
that we have been ascending all the time. From 
70 feet above sea-level at Mombasa we are now 
over 4,000 feet and again passing through a 
populous country, Ukamba, with its lofty hills 
and beautiful fertile valleys. The people, a 
Bantu tribe, are numerous and industrious, 
renowned hunters, and trustworthy guides. 
They are very proud of themselves, and go 
in for a great deal of ornamentation with beads, 



A Humorous Rhino 39 

shells, brass, iron, and copper wire. They also 
file the teeth and smear the body with rancid 
butter and red earth. 

We had a rest and meal at Makindu, mile 209 ; 
but the bracing air has made us ready for 
another. Our train has crossed the Kapiti 
Plains at a height of 5,850 feet, and every one 
is declaring that here is white man's Africa, the 
land of hope for any overflowing population. 
Be that as it may, I am hungry, and willing to 
leave such abstruse questions for another time, 
since the train has arrived at Nairobi, 327 miles 
from Mombasa, and 5,450 feet above sea-level. 



CHAPTER II 
THE CAPITAL OF BRITISH EAST AFRICA 

Nairobi — A bad start — Progress — Strong opinions — Knotty 
problems —Forcing the hand of the Administration — " Put 
the native in his proper place" — The destiny of the 
African— Is he capable of mental and moral development ? 
— The Governor of British East Africa — The settler — 
Will he ever be able to make a permanent home in the 
Highlands of Africa ? — The evils of competition — The 
problems of race and colour very pressing — Locate the 
white man as well as the black — Is the Asiatic a " settler " ? 
— The intermingling of the Aryan and Negro — Develop the 
country through the native — Organise and educate the 
negro — Disintegration of native customs — Taxation — 
Eearrange old tribal systems. 

NAIROBI, the capital of British East Africa, 
5,000 feet above sea-level, and a centre 
from which to hunt big game, see natives, and 
study problems. 

The first problem is how to make the best of 
a bad job, for the wise man responsible for 
moving the headquarters of the railway from 
Mombasa to the Highlands was unfortunately 




41 



A Bad Start 43 

also responsible for planting it in the middle of 
a swamp. 

Thus the effort to make a beginning in the 
Highlands got a bad start, and might have 
proved hopeless but for the grit of some con- 
cerned, who have so wrought that what five 
years ago was a hideously bad dream of corru- 
gated iron is to-day a very presentable Anglo- 
African town. There is an Anglican church, 
Roman Catholic chapel, a bank, a couple or 
more really good hotels, a post office, stores of 
every description, a well-made main road, rick- 
shas plying for hire, some slight attempt at 
drainage, and a market that really does credit 
to the place. 

Indeed, there is a great deal more than might 
have been expected in so new a town, and a 
great deal more than is good for it, for from the 
beginning Nairobi has been blessed — or cursed — 
with men holding strong opinions. 

With the building of a house for the Governor 
began the question of whether Mombasa or 
Nairobi should be the capital, and since that 
time it is somewhat difficult to decide whether 
population or opinions increased more quickly. 

The strength of the latter has certainly de- 
veloped until the tone of one local rag might 
sometimes be mistaken for an outspoken Ameri- 
can. The human element at Nairobi is the one 



44 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

to be considered, and the one that ought to be 
considered now if we do not wish to reap 
grievous troubles in the future. 

It seems almost incredible that whilst here in 
England, within a comparatively small area, the 
cry of needy thousands can hardly be heard, in 
East Africa some five hundred and fifty men 
are making so much noise that the House of 
Lords gives pause to listen. Were it not absurd 
it might be serious, yet no doubt behind it all 
lie principles serious enough. 

Is " the Colony of British East Africa " a 
misnomer ? If not, who are to colonise it ? 
Well, since the climate is very similar to 
Southern Europe, the soil rich, fertile, and well 
watered, European vegetables, fruit, cereals, 
sheep and cattle already doing well, the answer 
seems to be, " White men." And this is the only 
answer in the mouth of the men in and around 
Nairobi : the man who is doing well on his farm, 
and really ought to be encouraged, and the 
man who has never done well anywhere, but 
mysteriously turns up in every new African 
town to hang round the billiard saloon, live on 
the newest hotel venture, and give gratis his 
opinion on law and order — a disgrace to his 
countrymen, a danger to every new colony. 
There is also another being who answers, 
" White men ! " in a particularly loud voice, 



The Right Kind of Settler 45 

namely, the man who hopes to grab as much 
of the best land for the smallest possible out- 
lay, and sell it at a big price to settlers. Both 
the latter are men who ought not to be toler- 
ated in a colony like East Africa, and if they 
could be dismissed I do not think the other 
would be a difficult person to understand. 
He is the man who wishes to do the best for 
himself by honest hard work, and curiously 
enough he is seldom heard prophesying that 
the country is going to the dogs. He has 
built his little house and is far too busy in 
town or country developing his own business 
to give advice as to how to make money, run 
missions, and govern the country. 

Still, even he will not believe there is any 
but the one answer to the question about the 
East African Highlands, in spite of the fact 
that there are five times more Indians and 
twenty times more natives than white men 
within a radius of a mile from where he stands. 

The natives claim the soil ; they have lived 
there for ages ; they are not the idle, good-for- 
nothings we sometimes hear them called, and 
naturally they are surprised when told that 
the big white man, the Governor, has sold their 
land to the lesser white man, the settler, who 
may or may not be disposed to allow the 
African to remain on the land. 

3 



46 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

One case was brought to my notice where 
the buyer impudently asked — perhaps out of 
bravado or wish to chaff the official — if he had 
a right to shoot on sight any native he caught 
on his property. 

The chaff indicates the trend of thought ; not 
that such men would shoot the native, but that 
the native ought to be cleared away at the 
will of and to make room for the white 
man. 

I need not here refer at length to the endea- 
vour made some time ago to force the hand 
of the Administration on the native question, 
by unlawfully whipping some servant-boys in 
the public street of Nairobi immediately in 
front of the magistrate's office ; but I do say, 
" God help the Governor" of such a country at 
such a time. 

To " put the native in his proper place " 
simply means, to many who are interested in 
the question, to put him where he can most 
easily be called upon by the white man for any 
assistance in seeking to make a fortune ; to be 
content to acknowledge himself accursed as a 
child of Ham ; and the more accursed the more 
he strives to remove any indication that he is 
different to other men. 

That the African may have a destiny high and 
noble, a life to develop on the soil where 




\ i 



47 



Problems of Black and White 49 

found, of course under a more fostering care and 
tender mercy than those of the man hastening 
to be rich, has never been considered by many : 
indeed it is argued that he is totally incapable 
of mental and moral development ; but only a 
^ery short journey from Nairobi is necessary to 
refute such an opinion. 

Fortunately the present Governor of British 
East Africa is a man worthy to hold the position, 
and he is capably supported by his staff, who 
recognise their great responsibility to the native 
sons of the soil. 

They realise that they are face to face with 
stupendous problems which can only be solved 
by patience, tact, forbearance, and strong 
common sense, and are not willing to be 
unduly pushed into one line of action, bullied 
or frightened into another. 

I deeply sympathise with the man who, in 
the homeland, has turned his little all into 
capital, and, beguiled by land speculators' 
tempting advertisements or lectures, has 
gone out to East Africa, only to find that 
there are so many difficulties to be overcome 
before he can settle down, that his capital has 
vanished. 

He is appalled at the length of time necessary 
to secure land settlements ; the unsettled con- 
dition of the native question, the incongruity of 



50 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

an English colony in Africa administered under 
the Indian Penal Code, and administered by 
officials who have had little or no experience 
of such administration so far as white men 
are concerned. The tendency to petty official- 
ism under such a code galls him frightfully^ 
and he gives up in despair to join the ranks 
of the malcontents. How well employed would 
the Colonists' Association be were it to meet 
the Governor and thrash out once for all the 
answer to the question at first propounded — 
Is " the Colony of British East Africa " a 
misnomer ? If not, who are to colonise 
it ? This question once settled, we should 
have fewer men in East Africa embued 
with Carlyle's false idea that "the funda- 
mental question between any two human 
beings is : Can I kill thee or canst thou kill 

Comparing the negro and the white, there is no 
question as to who is best fitted for the country 
and which population will grow most rapidly. 
The negro is at home, the white is not; and, 
in spite of the fact that homesteads have ap- 
peared and some progress made in cattle-ranch- 
ing, it is quite an open question whether the white 
man will ever be at home in the African High- 
lands ; that he will ever be able to build up 
here, under the direct rays of the Equatorial 







51 



Wanted, A Master Mind 53 

sun, a strong, contented, self-supporting, per- 
manent, white community. 

Take away from Nairobi the official life — civil 
and military — the parson and priest, the railway 
staff, general agents, store- and hotel-keepers, the 
parasites and loafers, and what have you left ? 
Well, the town will have ceased to exist so far 
as the white man is concerned ; and in the 
country, on farm and ranch, will be one or 
two — not more — doing reasonably well. 

The evils of competition are too manifest in 
such a small community, and men are really 
buying and selling each other, did they but 
know it. 

So long as four millions of blacks are willing 
— according to some ideas — to remember their 
right place, and remain hewers of wood and 
drawers of water for the small, very small, 
handful of whites, the "lucky" few will be 
content ; but the colony will still remain unde- 
veloped, the native problem unsolved, and a 
large section of the whites as discontented as 
ever. 

For the sake of all concerned, let me reiterate 
that noiv is the time for some master-mind to 
grip the problems of race and colour, right and 
prior-right, in our East African colony. 

Is it not possible to offer the white colonist 
and settler a better chance, by setting apart a 



54 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

large portion of the very best land with the most 
suitable climate, and reserving that, town and 
country, for the white man only, and administer 
it under white man's law ? Of course it would 
not be possible for the man with influence to 
buy the lot, or even the best ; but, first come, 
first served, if — and the if is a big one — he be a 
worker. 

Innumerable questions surge up at such a 
proposition, and undoubtedly great difficulties 
would have to be encountered and overcome. 
Would all the labour be done by whites ? 
&c., &c., are questions that would naturally 
solve themselves, once the principle was laid 
down that within a certain area was situate 
and constituted a colony for white men 
only. 

Such a policy would leave the Government 
free to deal with the next two most pressing 
questions — the African and the Asiatic. 

To take the Asiatic first. No one conversant 
with Sir H. H. Johnston's purpose and policy, as 
laid down in his books on British East and 
Central Africa, can fail to understand that India 
and Africa are closely allied, in the minds of 
English statesmen at any rate. And the most 
superficial observer in British East Africa will 
notice that the Indian is a factor to be reckoned 
with in practical politics. Still, I very much 



Asiatic Visitors are not Settlers 55 

doubt whether he will ever be in Africa that 
important factor so many prophesy. 

The Indian is the most wonderful merchant in 
the world, not excepting the native of Uganda. 
He will come to Africa without a single rupee, 
get employment from one of his compatriots, 
live on a few grains of rice per day, buy native 
hoes with his earnings, and with these disappear 
into unknown regions to turn up again and 
again with loads of skins and hides, until, tired 
with journeying, worn out with malarial fever, 
and longing for home, he makes his way to that 
side-door, Mombasa, and ships for Bombay. 

Can this man in any sense be called a settler 
or colonist? and are not all the others — mer- 
chants, clerks, artisans, and coolies — much the 
same? The Money Order Department of the 
Post Office supplies the answer by telling us of 
the enormous amount of money continually 
transferred to India by these visitors. 

That India has a part to play in our East 
African Empire is undoubted, but that Provi- 
dence has arranged that part to be the inter- 
mingling of the Aryan and Negro races may be 
gravely questioned. 

The great bulk of India's population live in 
villages and till the soil ; these, if any, are likely 
to feel the pinch and require room for expan- 
sion. But do they require it? or, what is more 



56 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

to the point, do they desire it ? If so, they have 
not sought British East Africa as a new home 
waiting to yield them its harvest. 

This being so, we must look elsewhere for the 
men who will by manual labour develop the 
natural resources of our colony ; and right here 
comes in the opportunity of the Administra- 
tion to so distribute, organise, and educate the 
native element that, with the help of the Asiatic, 
with whom in many ways the white man cannot 
compete, we may at once begin a possible and 
hopeful evolution rather than continue the 
present chaos, that must inevitably lead to 
revolution. 

"Organise and educate the negro!" Is that pos- 
sible ? Speaking from my own and the experi- 
ence of many more qualified to judge, I say 
quite possible, and the sooner it is taken in hand 
the better. Up to the present moment the whole 
work of education has been done by mission- 
aries, encouraged but not helped by Govern- 
ment, and the results have been little short of 
marvellous ; but the coming of the Uganda Rail- 
way and messengers of civilisation — some good, 
many evil — before the vast majority of natives 
had been the least prepared even by Christian 
missions, have thrown them off their balance. 
They do not quite realise what part they have 
to play in the drama of development ; and they 



Organise and Educate 57 

feel like boys who have been chased away from 
their playground, but hang round perplexed, 
ready for any new game, harmless or dangerous. 

This latent power for good or evil surely 
appeals to England with as much force as the 
power allowed to run waste over the Ripon 
Falls ; and one cannot imagine it will appeal 
in vain. 

The white and Asiatic elements in British 
East Africa are both too small and uncertain 
to justify the shaping of legislation to suit them 
only ; they are both, as a whole, too content to 
live on and by the native. And the native, 
whose appetite for progress has been whetted, 
if only by the desire to obtain a shirt or waist- 
coat, must have his attention turned to the real 
source of wealth — the cultivation of the land for 
more than his own needs. 

By the introduction of civilisation we have 
begun the work of disintegrating the present 
social conditions of the African ; and it seems 
to me a very serious thing to allow this dis- 
integration to go on, whereby all the power of 
chieftainship is lost, everything understood as 
government annulled, and the native actually 
forced from the land of his fathers and left a 
huddled, disorganised, and confused mass. 

Hut-tax and poll-tax may prove an incentive 
to force a portion of the disorganised mass to 



58 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

seek employment from the settlers, but what of 
all the others ? We cannot, surely, suppose that 
the question will be settled by declaring a cer- 
tain portion of country " reserve," from which 
a native is not allowed to pass without a ticket- 
of-leave. 

Educate, educate, educate ! not by turning 
loose among them so many schoolmasters, but 
by organising them — on their own clan system 
preferably — under trained leaders of men, prac- 
tical agriculturists and stock-raisers, who might 
so use the chiefs and as much as possible of the 
old tribal systems, in order (a) to rearrange each 
tribe under the changed circumstances ; (6) to 
settle them on new land if necessary, giving 
them plenty of room to expand, no leave to be 
idle, but every encouragement and help to 
develop the resources of their land along 
lines laid down by their instructors. Do for 
each large native community what the experi- 
mental farm at Naivasha does for the white 
man, and erect at once industrial institutions 
for the training of artisans who will supply 
the need of black and white alike. I have no 
doubt but that the missionary will be only too 
glad to be called upon to supply other education 
for which, apart from his evangelistic work, the 
Government ought to pay him. 

Along such lines there is hope, I believe, for 



Use Hopeful Material 59 

all, but more especially for the man likely to be 
forgotten until he becomes a burden, intolerable 
even to himself — the native of British East 
Africa — at whom we shall take a closer glimpse 
before rejoining the train for the Lake. 



CHAPTER III 

THE NATIVE 

Four millions of natives — The Swahili — Arab and African — 
Arab influence — Swahili nature — " Black ivory " — 
Mohammedan missionaries — Primitive tribes — The Wa- 
kamba — Ideas of beauty — Religion — The Wakikuyu — 
Their industry — Ornaments — Polygamy — Unrest — The 
Masai — " Fierce nomadic v?arriors " — Nilotic negroes — 
Pastoral people — Dress — Warriors — Houses — Women's 
v^ork — Engaged — Ear-rings — Sacred objects — The Great 
Spirit — A problem. 

THE problem of four millions of native 
Africans begins at Mombasa and spreads 
itself over the whole of British East Africa, 
until we reach Lake Victoria. 

The Sivahili. 

At the coast we have that hybrid race already 
mentioned, the Swahili, or coast people — a race 
brought into existence by the intermarriage of 
Arab and African. 

60 



1 




A HARD DRINKER AND MEDICINE MAN. 
6l 



The Swahili 63 

others have dealt with the death of 
Portuguese and the growth of Arab influence 
on the East Coast, so there is no need for me 
to do more than mention the fact — a fact 
that has had a great influence, not only on the 
coast life but throughout the whole of Central 
Africa, for the outcome has been a people and 
a language. The people, deriving their name 
from the Arab equivalent for coast, are liberally 
endowed with Ishmael's wandering propensities, 
and have become the merchants of the Equator ; 
and it seems difiicult to believe that the innocent- 
looking individual, now buying or selling a 
donkey, was equally good at bargaining, only a 
few years ago, for men and women ; and that 
the jester was right who said that Sicahili is 
derived from saiva hila, which may be inter- 
preted " All same cheat." 

Such, however, was the case ; the whole of 
the East Coast slave-trade was carried on by 
these people until stopped by the power of 
England. 

Curiously enough, whilst the Arabs were able 
to imprint their personality and religion upon 
the native, yet the negro element was too strong 
for absorption, physically or linguistically. The 
negro type, drawn from many branches of the 
Bantu race, has held its own, and even forced 
a Bantu language upon its conquerors or masters. 



64 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

Pure Arab merchant and hybrid Swahili use 
the same language, and have made it, by their 
many expeditions into the interior after " black 
ivory," the lingua fi^anca of Equator ia. The 
peculiarities of a Bantu language are dealt with 
in Chapter XV. Such a race as the Swahili, 
with its negro propensities and Arab cuteness, 
has great influence as a Mohammedan missionary 
among the primitive tribes. It has also added 
very considerably to the difficulties of those 
working at the coast amongst freed slaves. 

Primitive Tribes. 

The primitive East Coast peoples, immediately 
in touch with Mombasa, are the Wanyika and 
the Wagiryama; few in number, poor in 
physique and martial ability, very superstitious, 
but also very industrious in agriculture. 

Between the Giryama country and the Somali 
country, north of the river Tana, dwell the 
shy and cowardly primitive Wapokomo people, 
w^hose customs and manners are very similar to 
those of the Bantu Kavirondo, which are dealt 
with later on. 

One of the strongest and most interesting 
peoples touched by the Uganda Railway is the 
tribe known as the Wakamba, dwelling in the 
country which stretches from the Tsavo River 
to the Athi plain. They are a brave and indus- 



Primitive Tribes 67 

trious people, who would, I feel certain, give 
a good return for any interest taken in 
them. Fond of cattle and agriculture, they 
are also good at making a bargain, and have 
been more helpful in provisioning passing 
caravans than perhaps any other inland 
tribe. 

Though not aggressive, they have held their 
own against would-be oppressors, and for years 
past have organised their own caravans to carry 
trade-goods to the coast. 

They are not very particular about the 
amount of their clothing, but are very fond of 
iron and brass wire, iron chain, and orna- 
ments made with beads and shells. They also 
seek to add to their beauty by filing the incisor 
teeth. 

The men, armed with bows and poisoned 
arrows, spears and swords, are mighty hunters, 
and renowned trackers of game, whilst the 
women are the most wonderful carriers in East 
Africa. The load of wood, flour, grain, bananas, 
or babies, is fastened on the back in the hide 
sling which hangs from the forehead. 

Like most pagan Africans, the Wakamba have 
but a vague idea of religion, believing in the 
power of evil spirits, to whom they make meat 
and drink offerings, and against whose influence 
they carry charms. 



68 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

Their custom of circumcising does not seem 
to have any connection with religion. 



The Wakikuyu. 

By far the most important tribe in British 
East Africa is the Wakikuyu : a strong, indus- 
trious, and warlike race of Bantu people, related 
more probably to the western branch of Equa- 
torial negroes rather than to their eastern 
neighbours, the Wakamba. 

These really are the people whose presence 
near the capital, Nairobi, occupying as they do 
the beautiful and well-watered country between 
the river Kidong and the Lossogurti Escarpment 
to the north of Mount Kenya, has forced the 
question of white and black, right and prior- 
right, to the front. 

Kikuyu country is situate at an elevation of 
from 4,500 to 6,500 feet, and is in climate quite 
sub-tropical. There are evidences that at one 
time it was a vast forest, which the natives 
have cleared in order to carry out what is, 
compared with other native efforts, an advanced 
system of cultivation, on the best soil in British 
East Africa. 

Although renowned for treachery and tur- 
bulence — due, no doubt, to the many attacks 
made upon them by their cattle-loving and 



An Industrious People 69 

raiding neighbours, the Masai — the Wakikuyu 
are admittedly a hard-working and industrious 
people, quite unfamiliar with famine. They 
grow bananas, sweet potatoes, sugar-cane, yams, 
peas, beans, millet, gourds, tomatoes, and tobacco. 
They are not rich in cattle — again, no doubt, 
because of the Masai ; but under the Pax 
Britannica their herds are already on the 
increase. They are also bee farmers, and hives 
are to be seen in every tree. 

Between the Wakikuyu and the Masai there 
seems to have been constant warfare, yet, 
curiously enough, the Wakikuyu have to a great 
extent copied dress, customs, and arms from the 
Masai. 

The men are content with a goat-skin for a 
garment, eked out with the covering of a fatty 
red mixture of castor-oil and earth with which 
they smear themselves. 

The women are more liberally clothed in skins 
hanging from the waist and shoulder, the 
number of which vary according to the season. 
Indeed, except in features, the appearance of a 
Kikuyu woman resembles very much that of 
her Masai neighbour, because not only clothing 
but Masai ornaments have been copied. Ears 
are pierced and loaded with iron rings, chain, 
beads, gourd ends, pieces of wood, and — since 
the advent of civilisation — empty jam tins are 

4 



JO Uganda to Mount Elgon 

seen everywhere fixed in the extended lobe. 
The men wear a peculiar armlet on the left 
arm, made of ivory or wood in the shape of a 
merry-thought bone. 

Beads, of course, are used, not only as cur- 
rency, but for ornamentation ; and some very 
pretty girdles are seen, made of beads sown 
on to leather, and worn by men and women. 

A snuff-box is a usual item of a gentleman's 
wardrobe, for snuff and tobacco are much 
appreciated. A Kikuyu man is armed with a 
spear, sword, knobkerry, sometimes a bow and 
arrows, and a shield made of buffalo hide, after 
the Masai pattern, and marked in a similar 
fashion w^ith a clan mark picked out in colours. 

Married as well as unmarried men are 
warriors, and this being the case, most of the 
work is performed by the women, who age 
rapidly. 

Like other native races, the Wakikuyu practise 
polygamy, and wives are bought w^ith cattle ; 
the newly married wife being brought to her 
husband's village with a semblance of force. 
She now discards the many ornaments used to 
attract lovers, and settles dow^n in her own 
house to lead an industrious and wonderfully 
moral life. 

The unmarried men and the unmarried girls 
live in houses set apart for them, supposedly 



A Transition Period 71 

under supervision, but there is a great deal of 
free intercourse between the young people. 

The native system of government has scarcely 
advanced beyond the patriarchal stage, and in 
many respects they are a people similar to the 
primitive Bantu we shall meet later on. 

Such people are ^vorth considering from an 
economic point of view, and with them the 
white administrator might at the present 
moment do anything. 

The idleness and unrest are due to transi- 
tion ; for, as we have seen, clan ties have been 
loosened, patriarchal authority has had to give 
way before the Indian Penal Code, and the 
natives' sociological ideas have been uprooted 
and overthrow^n. Before he again enters 
Utopia there must be a period of individu- 
ality, brought about by the kindly help and 
organisation of the English Government, 
through such practical education, training, and 
industrial enterprise as can be given, for the 
purpose of developing character to rightly use 
responsibility and opportunity. 

The Masai. 

A somewhat less hopeful but more interest- 
ing people are the Masai, who for many years 
were as an impassable barrier to those who 



72 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

wished to explore British East Africa. " Fierce, 
nomadic warriors " was all the description we 
had of them until the Scotch traveller, Joseph 
Thompson, gave us a closer view in 1885 ; 
and even then those three words seemed to 
so clearly describe them that there was no 
anxiety on the part of the travelling public 
to make a closer acquaintance. 

Since that time much water has run over 
the Ripon Falls, and the more dangerous facul- 
ties of the Masai have been so paralysed by 
the magic of the white man that the most 
timid inquirer may now approach them with 
safety. 

The Masai are not a Bantu people, but a 
branch of the Nilotic negroes. Originally in 
two divisions, each under its own medicine- 
man, they are now divided into various sec- 
tions and occupy the country that stretches 
from Mount Kilimanjaro, in the south, to 
Lake Baringo in the north. 

A purely pastoral people, their custom was 
— until placed in reserves by the British 
Government — to move from place to place in 
search of suitable grazing ground for their 
vast herds of cattle. Incidental of such no- 
madic life, it was no uncommon thing for one 
section to trespass on the ground of another 
section, with the result that war was declared 



Masai Warriors 73 

— actually declared, in civilised fashion, if such 
a statement is not utterly incongruous. 
Treachery was only permissible when dealing 
with those who had not the honour to be 
Masai. 

A Masai, as a rule six feet or more in height, 
straight as an arrow, splendidly developed, 
without an ounce of spare flesh on him, his 
head well balanced, and of a shape quite 
different to the Bantu tribes around, high 
cheek-bones and beautiful nose, is a sight well 
worth seeing, and suggests great latent power 
and possibility. 

This striking individual — the more striking 
because of his headdress of ostrich feathers, 
collar of Colobus monkey-skin, with the long 
white and black hair attached, and his whole 
body smeared with a greasy red paint that 
makes him look really formidable — is one of 
the El-moran, or warriors, and is therefore 
unmarried ; for the native political organisa- 
tion is such that when a man marries he 
ceases to be a warrior. 

The section occupying a particular district is 
subdivided into clans, and on the large shield 
of the warrior is clearly marked the heraldic 
device of the clan to which he belongs. Each 
clan has its spokesman, medicine-man, and 
political chief. Then come the two divisions 



74 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

of the adult male population — the El-moru, 
i.e., the quondam warriors who have become 
benedicts, and as such rank as elders, respon- 
sible for the good conduct of their kraal, and 
the El-moran, or warriors, already described. 

The houses are of the rudest possible cha- 
racter, made of bamboo and wattles, twisted and 
bent into a tunnel-shaped object some three or 
four feet high, then plastered over by the women 
with mud and cow-dung. These huts are built 
in a circle, and if they are to be occupied by 
the El-moru a strong fence is erected ; but if 
the kraal belongs to the El-moran there is no 
fence, for as " Britannia needs no bulwarks," 
so the Masai warriors require no other protec- 
tion than their own watchfulness. 

When a move is necessary the women are 
responsible for packing all household utensils 
and the bamboos, &c., used in hut-building, 
on the donkeys, and transporting them to the 
new grazing ground, whither the men have 
driven the cattle. In a Masai home the in- 
fants, male and female, are called En-gesa ; 
when boys can walk they are En-aiok ; after 
circumcision they are El-barnode, whilst girls 
at the same stage are En-doya. 

When the males are old enough to carry 
arms they cease to eat any vegetable diet, 
and live on beef, blood, and milk. They move 




76 



Good-looking Girls 77 

into the kraal of the El-moran, and there 
live a life of free love with the unmarried 
girls, who, in spite of the fact that the cus- 
tom is an old one, are nevertheless punished 
if they become mothers. The great wonder 
is that these girls are able to settle down 
after marriage to a fairly moral life. 

An engaged girl is easily known by the 
length of her hair and by the band round 
the head with cowrie shells hanging from a 
number of strings, like the married woman of 
Palestine with her pieces of money hanging 
in much the same way. 

At marriage the head is shaved, certain ear 
ornaments discarded, and the married woman's 
skin garments adopted. 

The girls are quite good-looking and grace- 
ful, but many seem to be actually deformed 
owing to the pressure on arms and legs of 
the heavy spiral coil of iron wire. 

The ear has been chosen by the Masai as 
the chief member for ornamentation, which 
means, in some cases, the most frightful dis- 
figurement. The lobe is pierced and then 
extended until it is made to take a piece of 
wood varying in size from two to six inches 
in diameter. 

There are various forms of salutation used 
in the country, one at least not acceptable 



78 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

to a white visitor — namely, that of spitting. 
The Masai are quite adepts at sending out 
the saliva, through the notch filed between 
the two upper incisors, and of course you 
must take the salutation in the spirit in which 
it is given. 

The married women do some very pretty 
bead-work and ornament the gourds in which 
the milk is kept. Milk is accounted sacred, 
and may not be boiled ; and no stranger is 
supposed to receive it either for pay or as a 
present, but sometimes one has been able to 
buy a little from a soft-hearted lady. 

Grass also is a sacred object, and, when held 
in the hand, a sign of peace. A visitor is 
receiving the most cordial welcome when the 
Masai touch him with grass. 

Ngai is the great spirit of this nomadic 
people, and to him, who dwells, they say, in 
the great mountain in the south, they con- 
tinually pray for help and guidance. 

A strange people indeed, and one not easy 
to deal with as part of the problem before 
us. More interesting than the Wakikuyu, but 
not so hopeful, because they are pastoral and 
not agricultural. Yet even with a pastoral and 
cattle-loving people like the Masai, there is 
reason to believe that a little expenditure and 
careful organisation will turn them into settled 



Native Ranchers 79 

and permanent ranchers, willing to sell their 
improved stock at the improved prices offered. 

Of course, with such a proposal I am knock- 
ing right up against the one or two rich 
ranchers who at present have it very much 
their own way, and would probably not care 
to have the native organised, educated, and 
helped by Government to beat them at their 
own game. Yet it seems to me far more in- 
cumbent upon the Government to develop the 
native human being, and, by so doing, develop 
land and stock, than to neglect the human 
element and hand over the land, that has 
been the grazing land of the Masai for ages, 
at a nominal figure to one or two rich Eng- 
lishmen, or to a syndicate, for the purpose of 
— well, not for the purpose of developing the 
native. 

Though tempted to leave the railway and 
push northward beyond Lake Baringo in order 
to visit the Suk and Turkana peoples, we 
must not do so, but take the next train and 
move westwards to the Lake. 



CHAPTER IV 

FROM NAIROBI TO LAKE VICTORIA 

The most beautiful country — The great "fault" — The Mau 
Escarpment — Giant timber — A serious rainstorm — 
Poisoned arrows — Nandi troubles — A caravan cut up — 
Port Florence — Kavirondo peoples — A surprise — The 
tropics indeed — The C.M.S. — The power of example — The 
sight of a lifetime — The day of opportunity for the 
Christian Church — Education or Evangelisation ? 

LEAVING Nairobi we push on to the Lake 
through the most beautiful country of 
British East Africa. We cannot leave the 
native question behind, for our very train has 
been obliged to carry armed Masai to protect 
its passengers from disloyal natives that may 
be met with. 

Having crossed the wonderful Meridional Rift, 
or great " fault " as geologists and miners would 
term it, which stretches almost the whole length 
of Africa, and here at Kikuyu falls almost sheer 

to a depth of 1,440 feet, we are soon passing 

so 




MASAI WARRIORS GUARDING A TRAIX ON THE UGANDA RAILWAY. 



8i 



A Deadly Downpour 83 

over the Mau Escarpment, with its mighty- 
forests of giant timber that patiently wait for 
the axe and saw and ingenuity of man or 
enterprise of the Government, to turn the best 
of the timber to better account than fuel for 
the iron horse, and from the rest provide that 
fuel more easily and cheaply than at present. 

Already some enterprising individuals are 
working in a small way, with the result that 
almost every article of furniture may be bought 
in Nairobi in a style and at a price that will 
compare with anything in England. What a 
different journey from the one I took in 1895, 
when it was plod, plod, plod up hill and down 
dale, in sunshine and shower. One shower I 
remember overtook us on this very escarpment, 
and I don't suppose it will ever be forgotten 
by any of the party. 

We were descending Mau on the westward 
side and had almost reached a convenient 
camping-place when it began to rain. The 
cold was intense, the path, bad at any time, 
became slippery and difficult to negotiate ; 
the rivulets became mighty torrents, and the 
porters were in despair. We coaxed, we 
threatened, we helped with loads, and carried 
men ; but I believe a dozen succumbed as the 
result of that downpour. 

From such a recurrence as that the railway 



84 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

has delivered us, and I, for one, am grateful. 
The Dorobo people, with their poisoned arrows, 
are still in the forests, but no longer have we 
to keep our men in close order lest a stray- 
arrow should find an untimely resting-place. 
The engine pants and puffs and snorts, and 
eventually reaches the highest point from 
which we run down at an increased speed into 
a totally different climate. 

We have reached what for purposes of 
administration is called the Province of Kisumu, 
through which the railway was hurried to the 
Lake by a short cut when the patience of the 
British taxpayer had almost reached its limit. 
En route it taps the countries of Nandi, 
Lumbwa, and Kavirondo. 

For some time past the Nandi people have 
given considerable trouble, and at one station 
there was gruesome evidence of their having 
paid a visit just before our arrival. Our Masai 
guard seemed quite disappointed that they 
had missed an opportunity of displaying their 
powers ; but the passengers were too fluttered 
by the sight of one dead man to wish for 
more bloodshed. 

It reminded me of my first visit to the 
Nandi country and of a ghastly experience of 
their bloodthirstiness. 

Our caravan of some six hundred porters 



A Ghastly and Painful Sight 85 

was delayed at the coast for a short time : and 
a small caravan of some thirty mail-carriers 
was despatched in front of us. When we 
reached Eldoma Ravine, a wounded Swahili 
crawled into our camp and told a tale of awful 
butchery. He, with the other mail-runners, had 
passed the Ravine in safety, and had reached 
the border of Nandi country, where they 
encamped for the night. The Nandi warriors 
had watched their every movement, and sud- 
denly swooped down and killed every man but 
the one who escaped to tell us the terrible 
story. 

Our doctor attended his wounds and he was 
able to go on with us and point out the scene of 
his aw^ful experience. It was a ghastly and 
painful sight, and we delayed our march an 
hour or two in order to collect letters and 
valuables belonging to waiting friends in 
Uganda, and to obliterate the more marked 
evidences of a savage attack. 

Now, however, we are hurried on along the 
iron road, through the countries of Nandi 
and Kavirondo to Kisumu, also named Port 
Florence, after the wife of some official, whom 
I sincerely hope was not responsible for choos- 
ing such a filthy, shallow, fever swamp at which 
to fix the Uganda Railway terminus. 

The population of the Kisumu Province is 



86 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

roughly computed to be a million and a half, 
and embraces the peoples of Nandi, Lumbwa, 
Kavirondo, Sotik, Kisi, and Ugaya. 

The Nandi and Lumbwa peoples are related, 
and belong to the Nilotic Bari group. Both are 
of a fierce temperament, but the Nandi have 
given the Administration most trouble, and have 
recently been removed from the vicinity of the 
railway into a reserve situate to the east of 
Mount Elgon. This move on the part of the 
Government is probably neither more nor less 
than to restore the Nandi people to their 
original home from which they were driven by 
the Masai when that people first invaded 
Equatorial Africa a hundred years ago. 

Kavirondo is populated by two distinct races 
of people — the Bantu, who are of the aboriginal 
stock, still found on Mount Elgon, and the 
Nilotics, who are closely related to the Gang 
or Acholi Lur people, from whom, legend 
declares, they separated to seek a country of 
their own, and having sought to encroach on 
the land of the Kimam people who occupy the 
country north of Lake Kyoga, i.e., north-west 
of Mount Elgon, they were thoroughly beaten 
and driven through the country, now unin- 
habited, west of Elgon, right down to the 
shores of Lake Victoria. 
The surprise of a traveller who, fresh from 



The Nilotic Kavirondo 87 

Europe, has never left the train on its journey 
from Mombasa, and now finds himself deposited 
in the midst of a grinning crowd of absolutely 
nude natives, must be great indeed. Yet that 
is just what he will find at Kisumu. 

Nowhere are the Nilotic peoples very keen on 
clothing, but nowhere are they less keen than in 
Southern Kavirondo ; and, of course, the question 
again crops up, What can be done with such 
a people ? Here they are in teeming numbers, 
very industrious to supply their own scanty 
needs, rich in cattle, splendid in physique, in 
no danger from white competition, for, as I 
said at the beginning of this chapter, the 
western side of the Mau Escarpment is another 
climate to that of the Highlands of British East 
Africa. 

Here we are in the tropics indeed, with all 
the discomforts, all the dangers incidental to 
a tropical country and climate ; and Tvhilst the 
white man and Asiatic is able to live and 
supervise for a short time the work of others, 
they will never be able to look upon this part 
of Africa with such longing eyes as to cause the 
native any anxiety with respect to the land. 

The question is. Can we cause him any anxiety 
at all? Here is a vast population, touched by 
the Uganda Railway and the varied influences 
that represents, and yet quite untouched by any 



88 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

desire for progress in the way that the best kind 
of civilisation might suggest. 

Nothing has been done by the Government to 
whet his appetite for progress ; for taxation, 
whilst necessary, tends the other way, and no 
country will develop on taxation alone. 

The native of British East Africa has not been 
utterly neglected, however, for since the year 
1844, when the Church Missionary Society began 
work at Mombasa, the Christian missionary has 
been striving to improve his lot. 

It was the agents of this Society that gave 
an impetus to the geographical enterprise that 
eventually led to the discovery of the great 
inland lakes and the source of the Nile. It was 
chiefly through this Society's efforts that the 
Parliamentary Committee of 1871 was obtained, 
which led to Sir Bartle Frere's Mission to Zanzi- 
bar in the following year. In 1874 Frere Town 
was established by the Rev. W. S. Price, and 
in 1875 five hundred slaves, rescued by H.M. 
cruisers, were handed over to him, and housed, 
fed, instructed, and trained to work for their 
living. 

Since that time the work at Mombasa and 
Frere Town has been strengthened by additional 
workers, and other stations have been opened at 
Rabai, Giryama, Taita, Taveta, Ukamba, Nairobi, 
Kikuyu, and Kenya. Other sections of the 



The C.M.S. 89 



Christian Church have been aw^akened to a 
sense of responsibility and opportunity with 
regard to this part of the world, and good 
work has been and is being done by the 
Church of Scotland Mission established at 
Kibwezi in 1891 under the auspices of the 
Directors of the British East Africa Com- 
pany, and some other missions of more 
recent date. 

All education and industrial training offered 
to the native up to a little over a year ago 
was offered by these various missions, first 
initiated by the C.M.S. 

Since 1907 a trading company has been estab- 
lished in British East Africa for the purpose of 
developing the native products. Being under 
Christian auspices, the native people come in for 
a share of attention, but I have not yet heard 
with what success. 

The religious side of the white man's effort to 
help the native has certainly advanced during 
the last few years, for thirteen years ago there 
was nothing being done between Kibwezi and 
the Lake. 

Let us not forget, however, that the neglect 
by the Christian Church of the various tribes 
w^e have been looking at in this and the last 
chapter, until the opening up of their countries 
by the railway, and the introduction of good 

5 



90 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

and bad — often very bad — civilisation, has 
tended to make the work of the missionary a 
thousandfold more difficult than it would have 
been a few years ago. 

The work of the C.M.S. at Mombasa and 
Frere Town has always been somewhat difficult, 
but with the great increase of trade it is 
doubly so now, for like all seaports the tempta- 
tions offered to the natives are of a specially 
strong character, and we who know our Liver- 
pool, London, Sunderland, and Tyneside will 
understand and sympathise with those who are 
tempted and those who are seeking to help 
them. 

It is a sad fact that much of the native 
Christianity — if I may so express it — I mean, of 
course, the native conception and reflection of 
Christianity, has always suffered from the poor 
example of nominal white Christians ; and this 
has been the more marked since the advent of 
the Uganda Railway. 

Shall I ever forget the sight I saw at Frere 
Town and Rabai — which I suppose would be 
impossible to-day — when crowds of people who 
had themselves been slaves, and others who 
were the descendants of slaves, welcomed us to 
Africa as the ambassadors of Christ, joined with 
us in intelligent worship of the Great God and 
Father of us all, committed us by prayer into 



Mohammedan Missionaries 91 

His keeping, and prayed that the Holy Spirit 
would go with us into the very countries from 
which they themselves had been dragged by 
slave-traders, and enable us there to preach 
the gospel of all True Light and Life and 
Liberty, Jesus Christ? 

This is the time of special temptation, special 
need, and special opportunity. Is the Church 
to expect the Government to do its duty and 
yet neglect her own ? 

Let us remember that Mohammedan traders 
from Abyssinia are meeting Mohammedan 
traders from Mombasa, and every Mohammedan 
trader is a missionary of the false prophet. 
Mohammedan interpreters for some reason or 
another are in every Government boma, and 
Mohammedan interpreters are no less mis- 
sionaries. These men are not afraid to push 
into unknown countries, whilst we Christians 
are in danger of sitting on each other in one 
or two districts quite near to the railroad. 
These men are never ashamed or tired of pro- 
pagating their faith, whilst to the average 
white man to mention the name of Jesus is 
supposed to be "bad form." 

Now seems the time and opportunity to press 
in to British East Africa large forces of evan- 
gelists with cool heads and warm hearts, 
capable of co-operating with the Government 



92 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

to supply all necessary education without let 
or hindrance to their evangelistic misson. 
Should it ever come to a choice between 
evangelisation and education, for the sake 
of some proffered grant, then let the grant 
and the education go ; but of this anon. 

At present we are at Kisumu. We have 
travelled 584 miles, in as many days as it once 
took us months, and here we are without one 
man having dropped out ; not a worry about 
food or water, wild beast or savage tribe : a 
marvel indeed ! Let us be grateful and take off 
our hats to this monument of British enterprise, 
then turn our gaze upon another wonder for 
size, grandeur, and beauty — the Lake Victoria. 



CHAPTER V 

THE LAKE VICTORIA: ITS SURROUND- 
INGS AND SCOURGE 

First view of Lake Victoria — A sight to enrapture — Waiting 
for breakfast — A picture from fairyland — The islanders 
of Sese — A voyage of discovery — Life hanging by a thread 
— From Uganda to German territory — Baganda influence 
— Dangers of the sea — The Bavuma — Steamers — Area and 
variety of Lake — A round trip — Sleeping sickness — Death 
and desolation — Doctors A. R. and J. H. Cook — Sleeping 
sickness means great suffering — Dangerous patients — 
Spread of the disease — Cause of the tragedy — The tsetse 
fly — The crocodile theory — Is there a cure ? — Experiments 
— A barrage over the Ripon Falls — Nearing Uganda. 

MY first view of Lake Victoria was from a 
high hill in Usoga, one morning at break 
of day. 

Placid and glittering, kissed by the slanting 
rays, dotted with innumerable islands, and 
backed by mainland that at one point appeared 
to be a grassy lawn, at another a cultivated 
garden, at another a frowning headland, and 

93 



94 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

at another an inviting sylvan retreat ; it was 
a picture to enrapture and remember for 
ever. 

At closer range this great fresh-water sea, 
nearly 4,000 feet above the Indian Ocean, was 
no less charming, and infinitely more interest- 
ing, with quaint inhabitants on its shores and 
in its waters. 

There, within a stone's throw, for all the 
world like a log of wood, lies a great lazy 
crocodile, waiting for the breakfast it is all 
too certain to get, for the cattle will soon come 
down to drink, and the younger ones are care- 
less. Or, maybe, it has heard the rhythmic 
splash of paddles keeping time to the spirited 
chanting, albeit in a minor key, of some delight- 
ful folk-song being sung in the distance. It 
seems to know that we are waiting for the 
singers, and listlessly follows our example until 
around a jutting promontory comes into view 
a picture that might have dropped from fairy- 
land, at which the crocodile immediately 
vanishes out of sight. 

A flotilla of canoes such as we have never 
seen before, long and graceful, coloured red 
with earth, and prows adorned with the horns 
of antelope. Each vessel is propelled by 
twenty paddlers or more, who, the moment 
they catch sight of us, put additional zest 



Sailor-men of Lake Victoria 95 

into both song and work, and send their frail- 
looking craft skimming towards us. 

They are the islanders of Sese, a populous 
group, situate to the north-west of the Lake ; 
and they are also the subservient sailor-men of 
Uganda, who have been sent with part of that 
kingdom's navy to carry us a six days' voyage 
from the shore of Kavirondo on the east, to 
Uganda in the north. 

They run their canoes into shallow water 
and jump overboard heedless of danger, until 
there is a shriek and a tremendous noise of 
splashing and shouting, to the consternation 
of the European onlookers, w^ho are certain 
that some tragedy has happened, until they 
learn later that only a portion of a man's cloth- 
ing had been secured by the crocodile. The 
man was badly scared and the rest were more 
careful. 

All loads are quickly put aboard ; the Euro- 
peans given places of honour under a thatched 
canopy temporarily erected in the bow, and the 
voyage begins — a voyage of discovery. 

The traveller is naturally interested in the 
vessel that carries him, and he is considerably 
disconcerted to learn in the first place that it 
literally hangs together by a mere thread. He 
learns also that these dusky mariners are very 
human, and immensely enjoy the knowledge 



96 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

that to suddenly stop paddling and punctuate 
their song by a mighty thud with the paddles 
on the side of the canoe, which makes it shiver 
again, increases the white man's nervousness 
about himself, and his respect for their bravery. 
These preliminaries, however, are soon over, 
and the European enough at ease with men 
and boat and sea to enable him to secure such 
information as the following : — 

It takes fourteen days to travel by canoe 
from Uganda in the north to German territory 
in the south. 

The Basese, from whom the canoe men are 
drawn, are the people who inhabit the group of 
islands already mentioned. They were con- 
quered by the people of Uganda and made 
tributary to them. 

Baganda chiefs look upon the islands as their 
property, and one, with the rank and office of 
admiral, is lord over all. He is responsible for 
organising the islanders and their canoes into 
a navy, to be used by the Baganda on their 
many marauding expeditions. 

The Basese build the canoes and are allowed 
to cut timber for this purpose in the forests of 
Uganda. There I have often seen them, hewing 
with their insignificant axes giant trees from 
each of which they secured only two boards ; 
all the rest was waste. The boards were 



Boats and Billows 97 

thinned and bent and sewn together with 
the fibre of a palm-tree, which lasts a con- 
siderable time, but has been known to 
give way and allow the keel board to drop 
out at an inconvenient distance from the 
shore. 

Even with such a liability to dissolution, 
the canoe on the Victoria Nyanza is an 
advance on the primitive dug-out, still gene- 
rally used on Lakes Kyoga, Albert, and Albert 
Edward. 

Nothing will induce our paddlers to face the 
open sea ; they know its moods too well — its 
sudden squalls, its terrible storms that lash 
its ripples into mountainous billows that would 
at once engulf their cockle-shells. They make 
for shore at the first sign of " weather " ; and, 
of course, the traveller must encamp on land 
at night. Here he makes the acquaintance 
of Africa's scourge, the mosquito ; and more 
likely than not he will receive a nocturnal 
visit from the hippopotamus which in the day- 
time is too shy to seek exercise and sweet 
potatoes. 

Only a passing glimpse of Usoga's luxuriant 
shores is possible, but it is necessary to visit 
en route the group of islands known as the 
Buvuma Islands, lying to the north-east of the 
Lake. 



98 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

Less than ten years ago this group, like that 
of Sese, was thickly populated ; but whilst the 
Basese had become subservient to Baganda, the 
Bavuma, being a hardy, warlike, and indepen- 
dent folk, had held their own against the repeated 
attacks of the people from the mainland, and 
not until the Baganda were assisted by Stanley 
and Williams were these islanders the least sub- 
dued. To travellers they were kind, peaceable, 
and hospitable. 

Other islands were met with, lying off the 
shore of Kyagwe, Uganda's south-eastern pro- 
vince, and a great deal might be written about 
the flora and fauna of some of these beauty 
spots ; but, alas ! one absorbing interest over- 
shadows all others, for the islands and mainland 
is in the grip of a terrible scourge — the sleeping 
sickness — a sorrowful reason for the passing 
away of the old sights and sounds that made 
Lake Victoria a scene of never-failing interest. 
Another, and happier, reason why the old 
method of traversing the Lake has passed aw^ay 
is that more up-to-date craft are to be found; 
and the traveller by the Uganda Railway has 
but to step from his carriage on to a hand- 
somely found Government steamer — one of four 
now plying for freight and passengers between 
the railway terminus and the countries border- 
ing the Nyanza. By one steamer, which leaves 




99 



A Round Trip loi 

Kisumu every fortnight, he may, if he wishes, 
make a tour of a thousand miles. It will take 
him south to Mwanza in German territory, then 
west to Bukoba, north to Entebbe, east to Jinja 
near the Ripon Falls, and thence to Kisumu 
again. 

Such a tour will give a good idea of the Lake's 
vast area of 40,000 square miles ; the variety in 
scenery and vegetation ; whilst the fish, croco- 
diles, and hippopotami will always keep interest 
alive. 

By another steamer, which awaits the weekly 
" up " train, it is possible to cross direct to 
Uganda; and this is now the natural route for 
all who wish to get into speedy touch with 
the official, business, or missionary life of that 
country; but let us linger by the way, and see 
for ourselves some results of this awful disease 
of sleeping sickness, unknown to Uganda or 
East Africa ten years ago. 

It meets us at rail-head, and if we travel 
southward we find that it has been before us. 
It has decimated the population, and is spread- 
ing still further south, in spite of every pre- 
caution of English and German specialists. 
Northward its ravages have been even more 
appalling, because of the greater population it 
had to work amongst ; and as we march through 
Kavirondo and Usoga to the Ripon Falls where 



I02 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

we may take the ferry to Uganda, we pass 
through silent wastes which, less than ten years 
ago, were teeming with population. The same 
scenes of desolation and death are to be met 
with all round the Uganda shores of the Lake, 
and on all the islands. 

The men who made and paddled the canoes 
have been almost totally wiped out of existence, 
for not an island has escaped. Death, death, 
death everywhere ; and death preceded by heart- 
rending suffering. 

Writing of one of the Buvuma Islands, situ- 
ate near to Usoga, the " Uganda Notes " says : 
" Bugaya is best known as a port of call for the 
steamers, where firewood is taken on board. 
At one time the island had a dense population ; 
a few years ago the chief, Muzito, was capable 
of putting 2,300 fighting-men in the field ; and 
the people were so crowded that each man had 
his plot of ground marked out for him — a long 
strip, some three or four yards in width and 
perhaps half a mile or more in length. These 
plots were marked off by stones laid in a line, 
and no one was allowed to dig in another's plot. 
The stones still remain, a melancholy mark of 
past prosperity, but the gardens are, for the 
most part, indistinguishable from a field. The 
whole island has a deserted appearance. Where, 
a few years ago, there were 1,900 houses occu- 



sleeping Sickness 103 

pied, there are now hardly 200. In one shamba 
(garden village) there stood 200 native huts ; 
now only 6 of these are tenanted. In another 
of 170 huts, only 2 remain ; in a third of 250 
houses there is left a solitary one. In another 
shamba, high up on a hill, of 70 huts, there is 
now not a single one occupied. Nor is it that 
the people have left : they seem to prefer to die 
in their homes ; and very few, if any, have left 
the island." 

The same story is true along the coast of the 
mainland. Villages I once knew ^vell have 
passed out of existence, and, w^here houses re- 
main, the people are dead. In one instance 
where the huts were standing I approached 
those having evidences of occupation ; indeed, 
the owner of one sat at the door, and I wished 
to ask him the distance to the Lake. He sat as a 
native does in sickness or sorrow — with his arms 
resting on his knees, and his head bowed down. 
I gave him the customary salutation and rested 
my hand upon him, when my boys, in sudden 
terror, besought me to leave the place. I asked 
them why, and candidly confess I was some- 
what startled when they informed me that the 
man from whom I was seeking information was 
a corpse. Alone and untended, he had passed 
away just before my arrival — the last of his 
village probably to succumb to the awful 



I04 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

affliction from which they all think it useless 
to flee. 

I think I am right in saying that sleeping 
sickness was first observed in Uganda by the 
Doctors A. R. and J. H. Cook, of the C.M.S. 
Hospital at Namirembe, in the year 1901 ; and 
from that time these two exceptionally clever 
and self-denying men have been untiring in 
their efforts to find a cure and to alleviate the 
sufferings of their patients. 

To many the fact that the patients suffer is a 
great surprise, because, misled by the name — 
sleeping sickness — they suppose the people are 
simply attacked by drowsiness and quietly sleep 
away. 

How very different is what actually happens I 
Lassitude, drowsiness, swollen glands, severe 
pains in head and chest ; emaciation compar- 
able to phthisis condition ; restlessness, pain in 
stomach and abdomen ; hallucinations ; inability 
to control one's actions, so that the patient is 
liable to become a mental, moral, and physical 
wreck — a terror to himself and the neighbour- 
hood in which he resides. 

In some cases the development of the disease 
is very rapid, whilst others linger for years after 
having been declared affected. 

It will be easily understood with what anxiety 
such a plague has been studied by the authori- 



A Terrible Disease 105 

ties, and how all concerned have longed for a 
cure. Everything possible has been done by the 
Government doctors — noble young fellows who 
have risked their lives — and, in one instance, 
Lieut. Tullock gave his life in seeking to trace 
the course of the disease. 

However the disease came to Lake Victoria, 
all are agreed that it came from the west. It 
is also generally agreed that the enmity of the 
various tribes made it impossible for people to 
pass from one district to another until the Euro- 
pean nations apportioned Africa, when the Pax 
Britannica made it possible for travellers to 
come in from the west and bring with them, 
first the jigger pest — which in 1897 had not 
reached Mombasa, but to-day is busy in India — 
and then the sleeping sickness disease which has 
done such havoc, as we have seen, and is now 
making its way to Lake Tanganyika and the 
life of British Central Africa. 

What causes the tragedy ? is the general ques- 
tion, and one not very easy to answer ; for the 
presence in the cerebro-spinal fluid, or in the 
blood of a patient, of a minute worm-like object 
— a trypanosome or trypanosoma discovered by 
Dr. Castellani — which sets up a condition akin 
to cerebro-spinal fever or meningitis, is really 
no answ^er to the idea behind the question, 
"What is the cause?" 



io6 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

It has been conclusively demonstrated by 
Colonel Bruce and his assistants that the con- 
necting link between the trypanosome in the 
patient and the source of the disease is a kind 
of tsetse fly — the Glossina palpalis — about which 
there can be no mistake, for although no bigger 
than the ordinary house-fly, it can be picked out 
at once because of the peculiar way in which it 
crosses its wings when at rest. 

The habits of these flies have been carefully 
observed by the doctors at great personal risk 
and inconvenience. It has been found that they 
live in the trees at the side of a lake or on the 
banks of a river, and that they lay their eggs 
on the ground near to the water's edge. It has 
been proved that, like bees, they " home " to a 
certain district, and it is hoped that by killing 
off the eggs, cutting down trees, and generally 
making a district less favourable to propagation 
the pest may be cleared out. 

Still the question remains, "What is the source 
of the disease ? " The fly carries the germ, the 
trypanosome is the evidence of the germ having 
been propagated, but whence comes the germ 
apart from already infected patients, and, 
consequently, what is the real cause of the 
disease ? 

In the year 1905 I heard that crocodiles had 
been suggested by some English doctor, and my 



The Crocodile Theory 107 

informant was equally certain that hippopotami 
were to be taken into account ; consequently I 
was much interested to read that Professor 
Koch, the German specialist, in his account of 
the subject before the German Emperor, pro- 
fessed his acceptance of the crocodile theory, 
i.e., that the fly feeds on the blood of the croco- 
dile and carries from the crocodile to the human 
being the germ of sleeping sickness, and that 
the first thing to do is to exterminate the 
crocodile. 

Whether this theory is correct or not, it 
seems somewhat strange that no effort has 
been made to exterminate such a pest and 
menace to human life as the crocodile. For 
the theory itself we must remember that croco- 
dile, tsetse fly, and native were living close 
together before the year 1900 — then why was 
there no sleeping sickness? The germ of 
that disease was probably lacking, and was 
brought when trade routes and inter-tribal 
communications were opened by the Pax 
Britannica. If so, how did it get to the islands 
first ? 

Such questions are of far less importance than 
the next one, namely. How can we destroy the 
trypanosomes in the patient? English Govern- 
ment doctors, civil and military, doctors from 
the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, the 

6 



io8 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

medical missionaries Cook, German and Belgian 
doctors have all been labouring with patience, 
zeal, and -wonderful self-abnegation in their 
endeavour to answer this question, and with 
a certain amount of success, but, alas ! without 
securing a permanent cure. To be inoculated 
by the fly — Glossina palpalis — is to receive sen- 
tence of death. 

Small doses of arsenic hypodermically injected 
was one of the first experiments, but it caused 
the patients a good deal of agony, some of 
them begging to be allowed to die. An atoxyl, 
an admixture of arsenic and aniline, was used 
at Liverpool and London, and then tried in 
Uganda. This treatment has not only given 
relief, but has caused the trypanosomes to dis- 
appear, for a time, from the blood. Whether, 
as has been suggested, their reappearance can 
be prevented and a permanent cure effected by 
a further administration of a salt of mercury 
remains to be proved. After long delay the 
Government decided to deal with the affected 
areas. Segregation camps have been estab- 
lished and the people removed from the Lake 
shore. All living in camps are placed under 
the atoxyl treatment, and the percentage of 
deaths has been low. 

Unfortunately a serious famine has inter- 
fered with the good work in Usoga, and 



The Tsetse Fly 109 

thousands of deaths have taken place that 
may or may not have been connected with 
sleeping sickness. 

All shrubs and trees are being cut down near 
to the Lake side, and large tracts are being 
put under sweet potato cultivation. In this 
way the fly is deprived of its home, and will, 
it is hoped, die out. The eggs of the fly can 
only be effectively dealt with by raising the 
level of the Lake, and although we have not 
yet reached the Nile, I may, apropos of this 
subject of sleeping sickness, express the wish 
that soon we shall see a barrage built across 
the Ripon Falls, and thus be able to regulate 
the height of the Lake in such a way as to 
deal with a pest like the " Kivu " fly by drown- 
ing out its young. 

Now let us continue our journey across the 
Lake in what is more like a trim, well-kept 
private yacht than a trade steamer. Every- 
thing on board is spick and span ; and the 
dusky sailor-men move about in an alert 
fashion that speaks well for the kindness and 
ability of their officers. On deck and below, 
all is in such order that the voyage from rail- 
head to Uganda is far too short. A well- 
cooked meal, a clean bunk, and a comfortable 
bath is a great luxury compared with old 
methods of crossing ; and the wonder and ex- 



no Uganda to Mount Elgon 

pectation of the traveller are heightened when 
he learns that the brisk youth who oils the 
engine in such a business-like fashion is only 
an ordinary peasant lad of Uganda, the shores 
of which he is fast approaching. 




A GOLDEX-CRESTED CRANE. 
112 



CHAPTER VI 

UGANDA: FLORA, FAUNA, AND OTHER 
THINGS 

BeautiM Entebbe — Capital of civil administration — The 
native opinion — A mistake — The road to Mengo — No 
advance — Appearance of country — A large garden — Cotton 
cultivation — Value of cotton export — Climatic conditions 
— Extent of Uganda Protectorate — Agricultural possibilities 
— Rubber, cultivated and indigenous — A cheap concession 
— Timber — Wild animals — A bull buffalo — Death of Dr. 
Densham — A native report of a lion hunt — Insect pests — 
Mosquitoes and malaria — Value and use of mosquito nets 
— Danger of rest-houses — Necessity of change — Protection 
against sun — Blackwater fever. 

BEAUTIFUL, perfectly beautiful! is the 
verdict of whoever views Entebbe, 
Uganda's port, from the deck of the steamer. 
And, if possible, more perfectly beautiful when 
viewed from certain vantage-points on shore. 
Well-built brick bungalows, substantial offices, 
up-to-date stores, a botanical garden, a bank, 
a pretty English church, good roads (in dry 

113 



114 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

weather), and a Government House, all bespeak 
the capital, and such it is, for here is the seat 
of Uganda's civil administration, very beauti- 
fully but very mistakenly situate at the end 
of a narrow promontory from which the un- 
tutored native says the white man is ever 
ready to flee in time of danger. 

No doubt the idea of safety was in the 
military mind that chose the situation ; but at 
this time of day there seems little to recom- 
mend it save the fact that the steamer from 
Kisumu calls once a week. It is not the real 
capital of Uganda : it is not at all central 
either for trade or administration ; it has cost 
much to make it tolerably healthy, and it will 
cost more to keep it so. 

The whole promontory, with the exception 
of the township, which has been cleared of 
trees and scrub, is infested w^ith the sleeping- 
sickness fly, and we must travel further inland 
to gather any true idea of Uganda country. 

A broad, well-cultivated road has been made 
from Entebbe to the native capital of Mengo; 
and the journey of twenty miles may be done 
in ricksha, bullock wagon (if you have a day 
or two to spare), or on foot. At no distant date 
it will be done by motor-car; but even bullock 
wagons are in advance of this and other roads, 
which are only kept clean by repeated cultiva- 



The Civil Capital 115 

tion. This means that one length may have a 
beautifully smooth surface and the next be like 
a ploughed field. 

Streams and swamps are crossed by the most 
primitive bridges which last but a very short 
time, and soon become greater hindrances than 
helps to traffic ; and it is no uncommon sight 
to see stranded wagons, or the traction engine 
of an enterprising firm, waiting for help to be 
delivered from the slough that makes the most 
optimistic business man inclined to despond. 

This condition of things is general throughout 
the Protectorate, and with the exception of 
an effort to utilise the present native-made 
roads for the purpose of growing rubber-trees 
along each side, and to build culverts on the 
road leading north, no advance has been made 
on the native idea of providing for pedestrian 
and vehicular traffic. A month's neglect is 
sufficient to make one of the present roads in- 
visible, in a little longer it is impassable ; and 
not much more time would be necessary to 
blot out every trace of an occupation that 
counts its success by a development of taxation. 

Let us not quarrel, however, with the only 
kind of road at our disposal, but use it to 
see what can be seen. 

Long grass, with an emphasis on the long, 
banana groves, hill and dale, are the pre- 



ii6 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

dominant features of the district through 
which we are passing ; and these features are 
common to the whole kingdom of Uganda. 

The hills have the appearance of having 
been sat on before they reached their proper 
height; and the valleys are as a rule noisome 
swamps. 

Travellers marvel at the wonderful fertility 
of the country and at the extent under cultiva- 
tion. It almost appears to be one huge garden 
chiefly growing bananas and plantains. This 
is as it should be, since plantains are the staple 
food of the people ; but here and there are 
evidences that the land is able to produce 
more than plantains, and may indeed have a 
future interesting and important to the work- 
ing men of England. 

Huge tracts are under cotton cultivation, to 
which the natives have taken most kindly. 
They easily understand its requirements, and 
it gives a quick return. It has been found 
that even without European supervision the 
Muganda is able to prepare the land, sow the 
seed, and bring a raw material to market, 
which will compare for length of staple and 
general quality with any in the world. 

So keen was and is the desire to grow cotton 
that for a time there seemed as if there might 
be a glut upon the market, owing to the lack 



Cotton Exports 117 

of ginning machinery ; but this difficulty has 
been quite overcome by the enterprise of two 
trading companies which have recently erected 
machinery in the native capital to enable them 
to deal with any quantity. 

In 1904 the cotton export was valued at a 
few hundreds of pounds. Last year its value 
was at least £50,000. 

The soil, rainfall, and general climatic condi- 
tions of nearly the whole of Uganda Protec- 
torate — which stretches from Mount Elgon in 
the east to the Mountains of the Moon in the 
west, and from Gondokoro on the Nile in the 
north, to the German East African frontier 
on Lake "Victoria — seem to specially fit it to 
become one of the best cotton-producing coun- 
tries in the world. It is not necessary to 
labour the advantage such a thing will be to 
Lancashire. 

The castor-oil plant is in evidence everywhere, 
as is also the tobacco plant, but neither of them 
have yet been taken in hand by experts with 
a view to development and exportation. The 
same may be said of coffee, which can be seen 
growing in the various banana gardens, and 
growing so well that berries from an untended 
plant were declared very fair quality on the 
London market. 

Ground nuts and chillies are grown in great 



ii8 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

quantities, but chiefly in the east and north-east 
parts of the Protectorate. 

The country is rich in fibres, but probably 
for lack of patience there is no cultivation or 
preparation of these, for which from £30 to 
£100 per ton might be procured in London. 

On every plantain grove there may be seen 
the tree from which the natives strip the bark 
which, when beaten with their hard-wood 
grooved mallets, dried in the sun, and sewn 
together, is used as the clothing of the people. 

Here and there we get a glimpse of garden 
stuff that reminds us of the homeland, and 
cannot but marvel at a soil and climate that 
does so well for cabbage or cactus, tobacco, or 
tomato. 

We have already seen the rubber-trees planted 
at the roadside, but there are also trees and 
vines indigenous to the country ; and one 
syndicate, the Mabira Forest Company, has 
secured the right to deal with a large tract of 
land in the Province of Kyagwe, on which they 
estimate there are 2,000,000 Funtumia elastica 
trees from which they expect at once an annual 
return of £137,000. 

I understand that this concession was made 
in the first place for a few hundred pounds. 

other companies have been formed for the 
purpose of working rubber plantations, and 



Dangerous Animals 119 

one or two private settlers are at work putting 
in trees ; but they will have to wait from five to 
ten years, according to the kind of tree, before 
they can expect a yield of latex. 

Uganda is not very rich in timber, but there 
are three or four very good kinds available for 
all general local needs, and our journey takes us 
through the exquisite little forests from which 
these are procured. 

Here probably for the first time we come 
across the wild animal life of Uganda : perhaps 
only an impertinent little rascal of a monkey 
with his short grey coat, brown tail, and lively 
chatter, but not unlikely a leopard, lion, or 
buffalo may be met with, in spite of the large 
amount of cultivation and population. 

On my last journey to Mengo, the native 
capital, a solitary bull buffalo dashed across 
my path, quite near to a native village. He 
had been driven out from the herd, and was 
consequently a very dangerous character — an 
animal to beware of, yet much sought after by 
sportsmen. It was just such an animal that 
killed an able and promising official of the 
Administration, Dr. Densham, whom I knew 
well in Usoga, and whose brother is well known 
in the town where I am now writing this. 

It seems almost incredible that the king of 
beasts should also lurk about the capital, but 



I20 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

within the last few months two lions were 
killed without a day's march, and I append the 
story of the hunt given in Uganda Notes by 
Ham Mukasa, who wrote that quaint book, 
"With Uganda's Katikiro in England." 

" We were told that the lions had roared the 
last night from Kasai in Bukerere, Kajungujwe's 
place. At first we did not believe that, but the 
next morning the people who came from Bukoba 
told us that they had seen their footmarks on 
the road at Kasai. But on August 1st they (the 
lions) walked hard a good journey, and reached 
Mukono and went by the road which goes from 
behind my fence and leads to the market. They 
reached the place where my cows live, about 260 
yards from my fence. Then they found the cows 
in the house by themselves ; the herdsmen were 
not there, they were waiting for food in the 
fence so that they might go back to the cows. 

"At half -past eleven my big dog Blanco barked 
loudly, so I understood that it was the lions. 
We were at table, H. Luganda and I, and I told 
him that my dog was raising alarm for the lions, 
for they had come, and I heard a voice like that 
of a door which is knocked ; but when the 
herdsmen were going back they met the lions 
in the middle of the road eating the cow^ which 
they had killed, and they roared very loudly to 



A Lion Hunt 121 

make the herdsman run, but he did not run, for 
he had a Httle boy with him, and the hons were 
two. Then that herdsman for his bravery did 
not run, he lifted his arm, the lions ran away 
from the cow and he raised the alarm and we 
all heard him. 

" Then all my boys went at a great rate and 
found the cowman standing where the cow was 
which was killed. The lions had eaten all the 
chest and entrails and lungs, the stomach only 
was left. Then the boys went into the house in 
which the cows live to see whether they were 
all killed. They found one cow hiding at the 
end of the house with her calf, and they brought 
her from the house and they could not see the 
others and we thought they had gone mad and 
we would see them the next day, so we stopped 
(searching). 

" But when I came out of the house I went 
there with my gun and two boys and I stood 
where the cow was which was killed while the 
boys were looking for the others. Then H. 
Luganda saw me and said, ' Sir, do not stand on 
the cow that is lying in the road.' In that time 
the lions were with me, one on my right and the 
other on my left, lying on the sides of the road 
in the jungle. One of them was lying eight 
yards from where I was and the other ten yards. 
They were quiet and did not breathe hard, but 



122 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

my big dog heard them and started twice and 
looked either side. It was very dark and it was 
going to rain. Then I beat my two drums in 
the way of war drum beat. All the people who 
live near came and I took them to see that they 
(the lions) had killed the cow, and we found 
them eating again. When they (the lions) saw 
us they ran away, and we left the cow which 
they had killed in order that they might eat a 
good deal and not go far away so that we might 
hunt them the next morning. Then I told ail 
the people that when they would hear the drum 
the next morning they should be ready for 
hunting. 

" When the morning broke the drums were 
beaten and all the people did what I told them ; 
they came before me and said they would do 
their best to kill the lions. I sent to the doctor 
at Kyetume to ask him whether he would go for 
hunting. Then he sent Mukusu, and gave him a 
large Masai spear. Then Mukusu brought people 
from the Camp at Kyetume, about a hundred 
men or more, and they saw the lions in the 
little wood which is near my place. Then I 
stayed in the market-place and Mr. Baskerville 
found me there when he came to congratulate 
me about what had happened last night ; and 
he was sorry he could not go with us to hunt 
for he had work to do in the church, for it 



Quaint Native Description 123 

was Sunday. So he remained to take prayers 
with the women and children, on that day all 
the teachers were hunters. Y. Kaizi and 
H. Luganda were with the hunters, and the 
Sunday service was held by Mr. Baskerville, 
and it was he who prayed for us on that day. 

" Now when I was sitting in the market-place 
many people came with their hunting nets, then 
I appointed Mukusu to dress (distribute ?) the 
people so that I might go after him. While I 
was there Captain Gray came with two guns. 
Then we looked for them (the lions) very much 
and we could not see them, and Dr. Gray was 
tired and went home at 1 o'clock in the after- 
noon, for there were many pigs in the forest 
and we could not tell the lions' footmarks from 
the pigs'. 

" When I saw that the people were very tired 
and every one thought in his own way and 
were disputing with one another that the 
lions had passed (but they were left behind us 
where we thought that they were not) then I 
sent S. Mulowoza to examine well, and when 
he came back he told me that they were 
behind in the little wood. Then I told all the 
people to go home for the darkness was drawing 
near, at half -past five, and I told them that if 
we could not kill them (the lions), the next 
morning we would take out food with us and go 



124 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

after the lions to Unga, where they came from. 
And they all agreed to that and went home. 

" At ten o'clock in the night the lions came out 
of their hiding-place and went to the cow-house 
where they had killed the cow and peeped into 
it, but it was empty, and they went down and 
passed by my station at Nasuti. When they 
reached the little wood which is in front of the 
station they went in there and stayed there 
till half-past three when they went up in the 
circle road which leads to Kauga and reached 
the porters' compound, they passed quite near 
the porch, four yards from the house to the place 
where they passed. And they went down into 
the forest Lyajah and across the river to 
Kirowoza and they reached the place known 
as ' Balimumperamukyalo ' in the Sekibobo's 
garden where there is a little wood in which 
they made their den. There were many little 
animals, about ten ; perhaps they were going to 
eat them. 

" I sent my men who are very clever in track- 
ing animals, and I appointed my headmen whose 
name is N. Siga and they tracked them and saw 
closely the place where they had left some of 
their fur. Then one of my men whose name is 
I. Kisajaki came back and told us all that they 
had seen. I was at Kauga, my old emhuga, and 
I told every chief with his people to promise 



Daring Native Hunters 125 

before me whether they had determined to kill 
the lions. After their promises I asked them to 
discuss how we should hunt the lions, for they 
had run away from us the previous day because 
of their cunning. Then every one said what he 
thought was right, while I was silent to see if 
they were all right. When they had spoken I 
picked out what were right and I drew them a 
map and I prepared the people in lines so that 
they might fight well against the lions. Then I 
stop]3ed every one to advise me and they did 
what I told them. Then I appointed Namutwe 
to line them up. But the chiefs had few people, 
a lot of them came afterwards and found us 
hunting. 

"When we reached the place where the lions 
were I prepared the people in their places, and 
during that time Dr. Rendle of Kampala 
arrived. Then afterwards we planned to cut off 
a part of the place where the lions were, and I 
sent Siga and four beaters with him and they 
went and cut off the part of the place where the 
lions were. But when they had walked eighty 
yards they found the lions sitting under a tree, 
and they both roared and the men attacked 
them, and the lions left them, one went on the 
right, and the other went on the left. Then the 
fighting began, the elder lion came direct at us 
without turning back, and we all aimed at him. 

7 



126 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

When he saw us he seemed as if he was told not 
to come to us, then he went half right and fell 
into the net. My man Kapere speared him in 
the chest and the spear went in one foot and one 
inch. When he rose up Sabagabo fired at him 
and Kopolo ran after him. When he turned to 
fight then he fired at him in the shoulder and 
he fell dead. He was wounded with forty-six 
wounds and he was killed at a quarter to 
three. 

" This made us braver and happier, this was 
killed about twenty-five yards from the place 
where I was. I was afraid before, then I took 
heart. 

"The other lion went up to Mukito's side 
and they shouted loudly when he tried to fall 
on to the net, and they stopped him and then 
he returned to us. He was afraid to come 
near us and he ran about twice before us like 
a dog. In that time you could not think that 
the lion was as big as a heifer. When I was 
going to aim at him while he was standing 
in one place thinking what he was going to do, 
the men who were with me objected saying that 
if I left my place the lion would pass there, only 
I should choose another instead of me. Then I 
chose Yoeri for he knows very well how to 
shoot, and he was made Corporal when he 
was with the Police. He went with Mulondo 



A Good Shot 127 

to shoot the lion where he was and he could 
not see it at first because of the shrubs, but 
when he examined well he aimed at him 
and shot him in the chest and the shot w^ent 
through the skin on the other side. And he fell 
there and when he got up for his great strength 
he roared in a low tone like a leopard. And 
soon he rose and came in a great rage and fell 
into the net and fell on a man named Kijoje and 
bit his hand, but he did not hurt him badly 
for he was no longer strong because of the 
wound. When the lion was running Namutwe 
shot him and he fell and was speared with 
eighty-four spears by the people. He was 
killed at three o'clock in the afternoon and 
fell on my left hand about thirty-five yards 
from the place where I was. And they told 
us that there was a third lion, and we went back 
to the place where the lions were, but there was 
no other, they had heard the thunder ! 

" We also killed nine small animals and a big 
snake in one place. 

"Ham Mukasa, Sekibobo." 

Not a bad article surely from a native pen ! 

The traveller need not anticipate much danger 
or inconvenience from wild animals, for as a 
rule they seem quite as anxious to get away 
from a human being as he does to keep clear of 



128 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

them. His real danger is from the multitudinous 
insect pests that infest the countries west of the 
Mau Escarpment and make them utterly impos- 
sible for white colonisation. 

Chief among the pests is the mosquito, which 
is responsible for more sickness and deaths than 
anything else. Far too long, for lack of scien- 
tific knowledge, it has been accepted and treated 
as nothing more than an inconvenience, but 
now men are well aware that the species of 
mosquito known as the Culex anopheles is the 
medium by which the minute animalcule named 
Malaria is transmitted from the blood of one 
person to another. 

There is no need to expatiate on the symptoms 
of malaria — the less travellers know about it ex- 
perimentally, the better ; and the only way to 
keep clear of it is to keep clear of mosquitoes. 
Do not sit out on an unprotected verandah after 
sundown, and do not sleep without a net. 

Of course I mean that the net should be let 
down each evening ; it should have a small 
mesh, and it should not be torn. Such advice 
is not superfluous ; for I well remember sharing 
the room of a friend, and in the dead of night 
being nearly frightened to death by a series of 
terrible howls close to my ear. I was confident 
that a leopard had got in and collared my friend, 
until I heard him calmly assure me that it was 



Use and Misuse of Mosquito Nets 129 

only his dog had put its head through a hole 
in the mosquito net, and could not withdraw it. 

That was evidently the chronic condition of 
that mosquito net, for on another occasion I 
heard him recounting to a new-comer an ex- 
perience he had with a large bat. It wakened 
him, and when he sat up it was hanging to 
the inside of his net. His disgust seemed un- 
bounded when the new-comer suggested that 
the mesh of the net must be rather a large 
one. 

Another real danger meets the traveller 
as he passes through Uganda, and meets him 
where he least expects it, viz,, in the sheds that 
have been most thoughtfully erected in the 
various wayside camps as shelters from the sun's 
rays in the heat of the day. These rest-houses 
were undoubtedly a great boon to the traveller ; 
it w^as perfect luxury to find the shelters ready 
in storm or heat ; and they became so popular 
that some Europeans ceased even to carry a 
tent, and used the rest-house by night as 
well as during the day, until it was proved 
that the common occurrence of Spirillum, or 
relapsing fever, amongst Europeans — a fever 
seldom fatal but exceedingly trying because 
of its frequent recurrence and high tempera- 
ture — was due to the bite of a tick which was 
found to infest these shelters. 



130 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

These same camps are overrun by another 
scourge — the jigger ; that nasty little insect 
which burrows vmder the toe-nail, forms a sac, 
lays its eggs, and causes a good deal of pain and 
inconvenience to the individual. 

Like sleeping sickness, this pest has travelled 
from West Africa ; but let us hope that sleeping 
sickness will not make such rapid progress on 
its journey. Thirteen years ago the jigger -was 
six hundred miles from the East Coast of 
Africa ; to-day it is working havoc in India. 

Ants — myriads of them meet one at every turn : 
white ants, black ants, red ants. Rats, big and 
little ; mice of various sorts ; flies that seem to 
be made in all sorts and sizes ; bees, wasps, and 
hornets innumerable, and all warranted to sting 
without provocation ; spiders, that strike terror 
to your very soul, seek close acquaintance ; 
whilst lice are larger in Uganda than perhaps 
anywhere else ; and the fleas are renowned for 
their ability to jump and power to make their 
presence known. 

Snakes are uncomfortably common ; we have 
seen them drop from the ceiling and peer from 
the walls of our mud house, yet I have never 
known a European attacked by one. 

The croaking of frogs, and the " cheep, cheep " 
of countless beetles and other insects give warn- 
ing of the closing day when bats and owls and 



Dangers of the Tropics 131 

wheel birds come forth to assist the mosquitoes 
keep the night-watches. 

To many, the insect life is more trying than 
the climate ; and both together make it impera- 
tive for the white man to seek a change after 
very few years' service. 

The atmosphere may seem all that is desirable, 
but imperceptibly one loses energy, becomes 
"nervy," and susceptible to any disease going. 
It is well, therefore, to take plenty of exercise, 
keep the head, eyes, and body well protected from 
the sun, understand, as far as possible, tropical 
diseases, causes and cures, and so keep clear of 
insect life which may be responsible for some 
other diseases not yet understood. 

One such disease is that known as Hsemoglo- 
binuric, or blackwater, fever, which has recently 
been rather common with a high percentage of 
fatal results among Europeans. 

The real cause of this fever is not known ; but 
it has been suggested that frequent attacks of 
malarial fever predispose the patient to black- 
water fever. Another suggestion is that the 
constant use of quinine is responsible for the 
breaking down of certain blood-vessels in the 
kidneys. 

Against these are the statements of reliable 
men who declare that they have never had 
malaria but have had attacks of blackwater ; 



132 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

and for the second suggestion, that only by the 
constant hypodermic injections of large doses of 
quinine was the temperature lowered and the 
blackwater stopped. 

Although no positive cure has been declared, 
it is interesting to note that out of thirteen 
cases. Dr. A. R. Cook, of the C.M.S. Hospital, 
Uganda, lost only one, and that one hope- 
less from the beginning because of compli- 
cations. His brother, Dr. J. H. Cook, has been 
equally successful, and their medicine and 
method of treatment have been supplied to 
every mission station, Anglican and Roman 
Catholic, throughout the Protectorate. 




THE KING OF UGANDA'S OFFICIAL DRUMMER. 



CHAPTER VII 

UGANDA: ITS PAST CONDITION 

The amazement of travellers — Stanley's expectations — Con- 
centrated cruelty — Mtesa's smiling welcome — The people 
of Uganda — System of government — Social life — The 
Bahuma — Native wine — The other side of the picture — 
Mtesa, the causer of tears — Mwanga, a cruel son of an evil 
father — Alexander Mackay — " The dark places of the 
earth " — Effect of missionary effort — Expulsion of mission- 
aries — Murder of Bishop Hannington — Growth of 
Mohammedanism — Influence of native Christians — 
Rebellion, capture and death of King Mwanga — King 
David — Light and liberty. 

FROM the days of Speke and Grant to the 
present moment, every traveller who 
enters Uganda is amazed. 

To reach it he has travelled through other 
countries and seen many peoples, but none just 
like these. From the coast to the Lake it was 
more or less chaotic, untutored savagery ; but 
now he is face to face with a highly developed 
system of feudal government as an oasis in the 

135 



136 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

desert. This struck Stanley on his first visit, 
and he never ceased to wonder and express his 
high hopes and expectations of such a country 
and people ; and it is no exaggeration to say 
that could he have had his great desire to revisit 
Uganda, he would have realised how much his 
hopes and expectations were fulfilled. 

Little, however, did the Christian world realise 
in the year 1875, when Stanley sent his memor- 
ahle challenge, that behind the smiling welcome 
of King Mtesa there lay a concentration of cruel 
savagery unknown to the barbarian peoples so 
utterly despised by the Baganda. 

The picture presented was that of an en- 
lightened King whose very name meant "the 
arranger of affairs," presiding over a well- 
ordered and industrious population of Negroids, 
i.e., a people neither wholly negro nor wholly 
Hamitic, but an admixture of the two. 

The whole country was divided into provinces, 
and at the head of each province a chief 
appointed by, and directly answerable to, the 
King. These chiefs formed the Council of the 
country, and were presided over by the King. 

The provinces were subdivided, and held in 
such a way that every piece of land and every 
soul could be accounted for. No one was inde- 
pendent, for each was owned by some one else 
who had powers of life and death. 



Marvellous Organisation 137 

The marvellous completeness of an organisa- 
tion that could, at the sound of the King's war 
drum, transform the whole adult male popula- 
tion into an army ready to march whithersoever 
his Majesty commanded, was no more wonder- 
ful than the ordinary sights and sounds of this 
country as seen by the early travellers and 
missionaries. 

They saw an alert and intelligent people 
of a colour ranging from light brown to 
jet black ; with good physique and gene- 
rally well-proportioned bodies, except in the 
case of some women whose enormous hips 
and breasts were supposed to be signs of 
beauty. 

There were no signs of mutilation for the 
purpose of adornment, such as is common 
among the surrounding tribes with their filed 
and missing teeth, elongated ear-lobes, per- 
forated lips, tongues, and noses, and cicatrisa- 
tion of the body. 

With the exception of the little girls, who 
wore a plaited waistband of coloured grasses, 
the whole population was clothed with graceful 
and becoming garments made from the bark of 
a wild fig-tree. The work of stripping the bark, 
beating it with grooved mallets of hard-wood, 
drying it in the sun and then sewing the pieces 
together, was that of the men, who, because of 



138 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

this labour, have quite naturally taken the 
position of the nation's dressmakers. 

The men were also responsible for the fighting 
and house-building, whilst the woman saw to it 
that the food supply was never short. The wife 
was the gardener of the family, and right well 
she did her work, skilfully tending the plantain 
grove which surrounded her little hut made of 
poles and thatch, and also cultivating the sweet 
potato, Indian corn or maize, peas, beans, and 
other vegetables necessary to make a change 
of diet. 

With great care and cleanliness the green 
but ripe plantains were peeled, tied in leaves 
and boiled in the earthenware pot, then turned 
out and mashed — squeezed would be a better 
word — into a hot mass of pulp, which was served 
on fresh, clean leaves strewn on the ground. 

No woman sat and ate with her lord and 
master, but received his commendation if the 
mass was good, and any pieces he might pass 
to her as she stood behind him. His feast 
was for himself and any male guests he chose 
to invite, and the women fed together with 
their children. 

Politeness was noticeable as a marked trait 
of the Baganda character, and little courtesies 
between a man and his wife or wives were never 
neglected. The ladies turned out to meet and 



Native Politeness 139 

welcome their lord returning from some raid 
in Usoga, Unyoro, or Toro ; and from the con- 
gratulations heaped upon him it might have 
been supposed that he, and he alone, had won 
the battle. 

"Webale ! webale nyo ge ! kulika musaja 
wange ! " (" Well done, very well done you ! 
bravo, my man ! ") resounded on every side ; to 
which the gentleman replied " Awo ! " (" Thank 
you ! "). 

The man on his side never forgot to con- 
gratulate his wife on her cultivation and 
cooking; and these courtesies played an impor- 
tant part in the native life. 

Some of the houses seen were of the most 
primitive character, resembling nothing so 
much as a haycock; but others, though of a 
curious shape to the eyes of a European, were 
always of great interest because of the beautiful 
way in which they had been thatched — a branch 
of work for which the Baganda have always 
been rightly famed. 

Fowls, goats, sheep, and cattle seemed plenti- 
ful ; and for the safe keeping of the first three the 
children were held responsible — not the progeny 
of the householders, for the Baganda, supposing 
it impossible to exact obedience from their own 
offspring, send them to be brought up by friends 
or relatives, whilst they make themselves re- 



140 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

sponsible for the children of others and really 
bring them up very well. 

The cattle were herded by a tribe of Hamitics, 
called Bahuma, who were practically slaves to 
the Baganda though related to the rulers and 
aristocracy of the neighbouring countries 
Unyoro and Ankole. 

Apparently the people had all that heart 
could desire, and more than was good for 
them, for vast quantities of bananas Tvere 
used to provide, not only the "Mubisi," or un- 
fermented sweet ivine of the country, but also 
the intoxicant known as "Mwenge," made by 
adding millet seed to the " Mubisi." 

To outward seeming, then, the picture was 
one of happy contentment. That slavery was 
customary, and that women were looked upon 
as inferior beings, was well known ; but it was 
inconceivable that the picture had another side 
almost too revolting to imagine or describe. 

Mtesa and his chiefs were guilty of the most 
demoniacal practices, which account for the fact 
that the name by which he is known throughout 
the country to-day is not " Mtesa," the arranger 
of affairs, but " Mukabya," the causer of tears — 
a very appropriate name for the man who 
sold justice (!) to the highest bidder, brought 
cruelty to a fine art in the maiming of his 
victims, and wantonly murdered people to 



" Habitations of Cruelty " 141 

appease a passing whim or the spirits of his 
ancestors. 

Never was the scripture, "the dark places 
of the earth are full of the habitations of 
cruelty," so fearfully illustrated as in the 
history of Uganda, and that within com- 
paratively recent years, although we speak of 
them as the bad old days. 

Succeeded by his son Mwanga, the natives 
and the missionaries hoped for better things, 
but were doomed to disappointment. Weak, 
cowardly, and vacillating, the son proved him- 
self all too worthy a successor to his cruel 
father, and the burden of the people became 
almost more than they could bear. 

For some years I was in daily contact with 
a man who had been Mwanga's playfellow, and 
bore the marks of such dangerous intimacy. He 
had been entrusted to collect the King's revenue 
in the Province of Kyagwe, and on his return a 
discrepancy was discovered betw^een his state- 
ment and that of the district chief. Certain 
sheep and goats could only be accounted for 
on the supposition that the King's messengers 
had had a right royal time on the homeward 
journey. Undoubtedly a dereliction of duty, 
but hardly sufficient to warrant the cutting 
off both ears of the chief messenger with a 
sharpened reed. 



142 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

One of my best native teachers was a man 
named Erisa, or Elisha — a big, fine man, who 
remembered Alexander Mackay, that splendid 
missionary, who did so much in his own quiet, 
plodding way to lay the foundation of the 
Church's successful work in Uganda. He re- 
membered Mackay building the first brick 
house with panelled doors which were the 
wonder of all ; but when I asked him to 
examine the house I was then building, it 
was most pathetic to see him feel his way 
over it. He was blind ; his eyes had been 
gouged out and an ear cut off at the bidding 
of Mwanga, because the King's drink, for 
which Erisa — then an unbaptized youth — was 
responsible, was not ready to hand when his 
Majesty called for it. 

Both these cases constantly before me, and 
another which may still be seen, made me 
thank God that the time had arrived when 
such barbarities were impossible. 

The third case was that of a woman whom 
I saw trying to hoe some sweet potatoes. 
There were others assisting, who willingly 
threw down their hoes to see and touch the 
white man. This particular woman stood back 
from the rest, until I intimated my desire to 
speak with all, when she drew near and shocked 
me by the awful sight of a woman indeed, but 



Days of Persecution 143 

one without hands or lips. These had been 
cut off by her owner for some trivial offence, 
and there she was, pitiful to behold, as, 
ashamed of her condition, she endeavoured 
to do a woman's work. 

May I once more say " the dark places of the 
earth are full of the habitations of cruelty"? 
And such cruelty that, in comparison, the above 
cases are as nothing. 

The missionary toil of early days ^vas be- 
ginning to take effect, and the King, realising 
that the minds and lives of his immediate 
followers were being influenced by the Scrip- 
tures and the teaching of the missionaries, 
issued an edict to the effect that all reading 
must cease under penalty of death ; and then 
began the trial of strength between light and 
darkness, right and wrong, cruel oppression 
and progressive liberty, which lasted as long 
as Mwanga was on the throne. 

The old tortures and mutilations became more 
numerous, and to these were added the brutal 
murder of those who continued to read the 
Gospel in spite of the King's edict. 

Of course, many fled the country and took 
their faith and teaching to the people of Ankole 
in the west ; but others remained and sealed 
their faith with their blood. 

The missionaries were made prisoners, tljrown 
8 



144 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

into a small thatched hut, left without other 
food than the few bananas given to them by- 
kindly passers-by, and finally taken down to 
the Lake and sent adrift in native canoes, after 
Walker had been stripped of his clothing. 

I often wondered afterwards, when visiting 
King Mwanga along with one of these victims, 
now Archdeacon Walker, just what was passing 
in each man's mind. Mwanga certainly never 
seemed comfortable ; and how could he, re- 
membering not only his treatment of Gordon 
and Walker, but also his murder of Bishop 
Hannington ? 

With the expulsion of the missionaries, he 
seemed quite certain of the death of Christianity 
and the growth of Mohammedanism, or at any 
rate such crude and cruel features of Mohamme- 
danism as appealed to him. Yet, strange to say, 
he had to depend upon the very lads and young 
men whom he had threatened with death and 
driven into exile to fight his battles and protect 
his throne and person from the Mohammedans 
who made periodic bids for the capture of the 
country. 

For four years I lived in and near the capital 
of Mwanga ; was constantly in touch with 
him, and know something of the influence 
which the same lads — grown up as men, and, 
because of their reliability and integrity, made 



A Sad Ending 145 

chiefs in the country — had over the life of the 
King. 

He writhed under it, yet realised that for the 
stability of the country it was necessary ; but 
eventually their determination to go a step 
further than the freedom of slaves and the 
extinction of cruelties was too much for his 
personal lusts, since they compelled him to 
expel from his presence the base characters who 
encouraged him in drink, treachery, and name- 
less vice. He rebelled against them and British 
influence, and the sequel was a lonely death on 
one of the Seychelle Islands. 

So ended the conflict between light and dark- 
ness. The last representative of Uganda's 
pagan kings was buried in a far-off land, with- 
out the extravagant " Kitibwa " (honour) so 
dear to the heart of a Muganda. 

No interminable procession with costly cloths 
to throw into the grave. No massacre of near 
relatives. No building of a national mauso- 
leum on the site of the house in which the King 
had lived. No moving of the native capital 
to a place chosen by the new King. No pro- 
cessions such as he rejoiced to have, when the 
opportunity was taken by the new^ King, not 
only to view his predecessor's tomb and relics, 
but also to sacrifice a number of his followers. 

How vividly I have heard men who accom- 



146 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

panied Mwanga on one of the visits he paid to 
his father's tomb at Kasubi, describe with 
what pleasure he gave an order to his gun- 
bearers to follow him, carrying their loaded 
guns over the shoulder, and at his word pull 
the trigger and allow the charge to plough its 
way through the mass of humanity in the rear ! 

All this has gone, and not only because of 
the passing of Mwanga and his like, but 
because the Baganda as a nation have changed 
their point of vision. The " Lubare," or devil- 
worship, responsible for gross superstitions 
and much suffering, is now scarcely known in 
the kingdom. 

" Le roi est mort, vive le roi ! " (" The King is 
dead, long live the King ! ") And for once the 
people really meant what they cried : for their 
" Kabaka," or King, although only an infant a 
few months old, had been baptized Daudi 
(David), and was to be brought up a Christian. 

Long ago the directors of the Imperial British 
East Africa Company presented King Mwanga 
with a chair which served as a throne, and 
took the place of the one made by the native 
carpenter. The latter chair, with that of his 
father Mtesa, King Mwanga gave me just before 
he rebelled against the British Administration, 
and they are both now used in the study of 
the Bishop of Uganda. 







H.H. KING DAUDI (DAVID) CHWA (+)• 



Light and Liberty 149 

To those who really knew Mwanga, nothing 
was more incongruous than to see him on his 
new throne, for just above his head was the 
carved motto, " Light and Liberty." The donors 
undoubtedly had their vision of things which 
to-day are being fulfilled, and the evidences of 
great advancement are thrust upon us as we 
make our way to the native capital of the 
present King, Daudi Chwa. 



CHAPTER VIII 

UGANDA: ITS PRESENT ADMINIS- 
TRATION 

No Uganda Railway — Porterage system — No relief for British 
taxpayer — Sir H. H. Johnston — Provincial chiefs — Pax 
Britannica — One Governor suggested for East Africa and 
Uganda — Tropical diseases — Native development or revenue 
— King David at home — Native parliament — Regents — Sir 
Apolo Kagv?a, K.O.M.G. — Native capabilities and possi- 
bilities — Chamber of Commerce and Labour problem — Road- 
making — Waste of labour — Transport facilities — Need for 
technical education — Military service — Strategic position 
of Uganda — The Right Hon. Winston Churchill and the 



ON nearing Mengo, we are surprised at the 
numberless porters leaving the capital for 
outlying stations, with loads of every descrip- 
tion. We soon realise, however, that " Uganda 
Railway " is a misnomer ; there is no railway 
in the country, and porterage is almost the only 
method of transport. I advisedly say " almost," 
because one or two private traders have 

150 



Reorganised Administration 151 

recently introduced the bullock wagon with 
results far from satisfactory to either wagons 
or bullocks. 

A closer acquaintance with the present 
system of government convinces us that the 
porterage system is only one indication that 
Uganda cannot be said to have advanced under 
British Administration — advanced, I mean, in 
such a w^ay as to relieve the pockets of the 
British taxpayer, and, at the same time, so as 
to develop native character and self-support. 

We have seen that in the days of King Mtesa 
the country was organised on feudal lines, by 
which the heads of provinces had power to 
try, fine, and, under certain limitations, kill. 

This form of government was slightly altered 
by Sir H. H. Johnston when British Commis- 
sioner ; and it cannot be claimed that the recent 
order whereby the Provincial, or Saza, chiefs are 
allowed to hold Courts and try cases is a 
development. It simply gives back an authority 
and standing which was taken away from them 
when, under the British Administration, they 
were turned into hut-tax collectors, for which 
they received the salary of £200 per annum. 

This latter arrangement turned the revenue 
into the official coffers for the payment of 
salaries European and native ; and the Muganda 
who forgets the real benefits of the Pax 



152 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

Britannica (my typist wrote Tax Britannica, a 
mistake almost too good to correct), and com- 
plains that the white man is eating up the 
country, is told how much more English money 
is spent on administration than is received from 
native sources. Perhaps, like myself, he realises 
the lavish generosity of England, but thinks 
that it is too lavish in the wrong direction ; and 
believes that the small kingdoms of Uganda, 
Unyoro, Toro, and Ankole could be more easily, 
beneficially, and cheaply administered by an 
English Adviser to the native kings ; a Govern- 
ment land officer, a commercial agent, an 
English Accountant with various native clerks, 
all directly responsible to one Governor of 
British East Africa and Uganda, than by the 
building up of an intricate Whitehall system of 
bigger and lesser fleas who must be supported, 
development or no development. 

We must not forget that Uganda is not, and 
probably never can become, a white man's 
country ; neither can the Asiatic hope to make 
it his home. The climate may be temporarily 
possible for both, but in spite of the statement 
of such an authority as Sir Patrick Manson, 
K.C.M.G., «&c., that tropical diseases are not 
climatic, one may be allowed to say that without 
a tropical climate the intermediaries which 
transmit the germ-causes of tropical diseases 



No White Man's Land 153 

could not exist. They do exist, and indeed thrive 
under the conditions found in Uganda, and until 
those conditions are altered, as, for instance, the 
doing away with plantain-trees — a thing not to 
be dreamt of — we shall have mosquitoes, and 
if mosquitoes, malaria and all that malaria 
means to the white and Asiatic. 

Bearing this in mind, we naturally think that 
development and not revenue should have been 
the watchword from the beginning — develop- 
ment of native resources for and by the native 
under European supervision. I am well aware 
that such a suggestion is pooh-poohed by many ; 
first because they think it wrong, and second 
because they think it impossible. 

A glance round the capital of Uganda will 
convince all who hold such opinions of their 
mistake, for on every hand are evidences that 
rapid strides have been taken to bridge the 
gulf between primitive barbarism and Western 
civilisation. 

Large, well-built, and in some instances 
beautiful houses top the plantain groves; keen 
and varied business is carried on in the markets 
under the direction of a native superintendent. 
Here a butchery department, there a grocery 
store, hardware of every description, tailors busy 
at work with hand and machine making cloth- 
ing for men and women, carpenters turning out 



154 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

chairs and tables that would do credit to any- 
British workman, all bespeak advance in the 
social life of the people, through crowds of 
whom, well dressed and orderly, we make our 
way to the hill from which the capital takes its 
name. 

Here we meet the little King David, a boy of 
eleven years, who succeeded Mwanga, and al- 
though the " Lubiri," or reed-fenced enclosure of 
the King, has much the same appearance as in 
the old days, yet the moment we have been 
announced by the King's official drummer and 
passed through the various courtyards into the 
inner court, we perceive the great change 
which has taken place. 

A snug-looking, brick-built bungalow has 
taken the place of the reed and grass mon- 
strosity inhabited by Mwanga ; and the visitor 
is ushered into a scrupulously clean sitting-room, 
very simply furnished after the European style. 
There is no longer the sight of dirty, wicked- 
looking loungers, popping up from every corner 
like vermin from their holes ; or the continual 
sound of lewd and ribald songs, discomforting 
the visitor but giving pleasure to the King, 
who was quite capable of delaying his presence 
in order to impress the European. The shy, 
pleasant-faced lad who now bids us welcome 
has been trained in a different school and is 
doing credit to his teachers. 




KIXU UAVID LEARNING THE MYSTERIES OV A KODAK. 



King David -157 

Simply dressed in the flowing Arab robe which 
has been adopted as the dress-garment of all 
the chiefs, the boy-king carries himself with 
dignity, which on occasion he can shake off, 
and enjoy as any other lad a game of footer 
and hockey, or a spin on his Sunbeam cycle. 
He is also fond of riding his pretty little white 
pony : to European eyes a more dignified 
method of transit than the native custom of 
sitting astride the shoulders of a huge Muganda. 

His education was begun by a native school- 
master under the direction of a missionary of 
the C.M.S. ; but the British Government has 
for some years past provided him with an able 
English (Scotch, surely !) tutor, a graduate of 
Cambridge. Under him Daudi has made rapid 
strides in all the elements of a sound education, 
and is especially proud of his ability to under- 
stand and converse in English. 

On the same hill and in the King's enclosure 
is the native parliament house, where the chiefs 
assemble to discuss the condition of the country 
and promulgate laws, which may or may not 
receive the sanction of the British Governor. 
At present, and until he reaches the age of 
eighteen years, the "Kabaka," or King, is a 
minor ; and three regents are responsible for 
the government, receiving for this an additional 
£200 per annum. One of these regents, the 



158 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

" Katikiro," or Prime Minister, presides over the 
parliament, except on such occasions as the 
young King is brought in for the purpose of 
training. The Prime Minister, a capable-look- 
ing giant, was a notable figure at King Edward's 
Coronation, and has since been made a Knight 
Commander of the Order of SS. Michael and 
George. This man, risen from peasant rank, 
is the virtual ruler of Uganda, and responsible, 
perhaps more than any one else, for the great 
desire to advance along Western lines which has 
taken such a hold of the people. 

There is a native proverb to the effect that 
the strength of a sheep is in its tail ; that be- 
hind all forward movement there is some one 
or something giving a powerful impetus ; and 
this is undoubtedly true of the Katikiro, Sir 
Apolo Kagwa, K.C.M.G. ; but of this power we 
shall speak in another chapter, since my object 
here is to point out not only the advanced 
desires of the natives, but their remarkable 
capabilities and the possibility of making them 
immediately responsible for every branch of 
administration, with only a comparatively 
small outlay for European supervision. 

What would be lost by such an arrangement ? 

The collection of taxes is already in the hands 
of the native chiefs, and they are also respon- 
sible for the roads and markets. The Indian 




SIR APOr.O KAGWA, K.C.M.G. 



Lack of Industrial Training i6i 

Penal Code is made possible by the help of 
native laws, although by such an arrangement 
there is a grave danger of too much law. 

Nothing has been done by the Administration 
for the industrial training of the people. All 
education is carried on by missions, chiefly by 
the agents of the C.M.S., who also do the 
bulk of the medical work among the natives. 
We have in Uganda and neighbouring kingdoms 
comparatively as strong, if not a stronger, 
European staff of civil servants as that set 
apart in British East Africa for native work ; 
and yet we have a letter like the following sent 
by the President of the Uganda Chamber of Com- 
merce to the Acting-Deputy Commissioner: — 

" I am desired by the Chamber of Commerce 
to forward you the following on the question 
of the critical and defective supply of native 
labour in Uganda. 

In accordance with your suggestion a circular 
was addressed to every member of the Chamber 
asking for opinions as to cause, effect, and 
remedy, and though no unanimous views are 
held as to remedies, yet the opinions are gene- 
rally as follows : — 

Native labour in almost every South African 
colony is inadequate to the supply. But as 
regards Uganda in particular. 



1 62 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

Causes. 

1. The natural richness of the country and the 
cheap and plentiful food and clothing supply. 

2. The indolent life led by all Africans not 
subject to forced labour and oppressive legis- 
lation. 

3. The increased demand for labour for indus- 
trial and trade purposes as well as for porterage, 
especially for through Congo carriage of loads. 

4. Want of primary technical agricultural 
education. 

5. Encouragement by Government and mis- 
sionaries of local agriculture whereby the 
peasant is able to produce all he wants in 
the way of money from his own garden, as 
is seen by the great increase in the cotton- 
growing industry. 

6. Absence of labourers who formerly came 
here from German territory. 

7. Monthly payment of wages of a sum so 
nearly coinciding with the hut-tax. 

8. Dislike of the peasant to work in the 
towns owing to the increased cost of living. 
The majority of men who came to earn money 
for hut-tax arrive generally entirely unpro- 
vided w^ith money or food, and unless helped 
by friends, or they receive posho, practically 
starve themselves for a month, and feeling 



Labour Problems 163 

this enforced punishment so severely that im- 
mediately they have received a month's pay 
return to their homes. 

9. Sleeping sickness mortality preventing the 
growth of the population. 



Effects. 

1. Persistent shortness of labour supply. 

2. Gradual and regular increase of wages. 

3. Loss to Government and merchants by 
delay. 

Remedies. 

1. Immigration. Inquiries have shown that 
large numbers of men are available in the 
neighbouring German territory. At Bukoba 
alone I am informed that five thousand men 
could easily be obtained at a day's notice. 
Would it not be possible to induce the Govern- 
ment of German East Africa to allow indenture 
of natives for work in Uganda under due safe- 
guards for their return to the colony, and 
a payment by immigration agents to that 
Government corresponding to the amount 
of the hut-tax payable to the colony. 

2. A census and registration of the adult 
native population through the chiefs and regis- 
tration for six months by employees. The right 



164 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

given to chiefs to punish by fine natives for not 
keeping to engagements or absconding. 

3. A weekly wage experiment has shown that 
when the peasant receives a weekly wage he 
requires no posho, spends more, lives better, 
and is consequently a longer time in saving 
up sufficient money to enable him to pay his 
tax. The payment of posho and a wage at 
the end of a month is an encouragement for 
him to return to his country. 

4. Encouragement given to minor native 
chiefs to exact rent, or labour in lieu thereof, 
for the house and land occupied by the peasant. 

5. Improved roads to allow increased trans- 
port facilities by bullock wagon, which would 
relieve many thousands of men from Safari 
who are now merely beasts of burden. A cal- 
culation has been made by one of our members 
long resident in Uganda that at least 50 per 
cent, of the labour of this country is non-pro- 
ductive, and utterly wasted, in porterage, 
in water-carrying and in road-mending or 
making on an altogether j)i'iniitive and wrong 
system. 

6. The provision of primary technical schools 
for agriculture, trade, road-making, &c., which 
would help to induce the males, and especially 
the younger generation, to desire a more regular 
manual labour." 



Administrative Breakdown 165 

It is not necessary to agree with every point 
in the letter to realise its value, as emphasising 
the fact that there is a serious breakdown in 
the general administration of the country — and 
a breakdown, not in spite of, but more probably 
because of the dual form of administration ; the 
Western as represented by English officialism 
not daring to Westernise enough, and the feudal 
as represented by the native " Lukiko," or Par- 
liament, holding things together. Indeed, with- 
out its capable co-operation the present peaceful 
organisation would undoubtedly collapse. 

One really striking statement in the letter 
is — " A calculation has been made by one of our 
members long resident in Uganda that at least 
50 per cent, of the labour of this country is 
non-productive and utterly wasted in porterage, 
water-carrying, and in road-making or mending 
on an altogether primitive and wrong system." 

No greater condemnation than that contained 
in this passage could have been passed upon a 
native administration ; but this is passed upon 
the British, and deservedly so, for I believe that 
if a man like " Bwana Tayari " (Sawhili name, 
meaning " Mr. Ready," and used by the natives 
when speaking of Mr. George Wilson, C.B., 
Deputy-Governor of Uganda) had been allowed 
to generally superintend and direct the gradual 
and natural evolution of the feudal system, we 

9 > 



1 66 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

should not have had what is now acute — a 
native labour problem. 

The " wrong system " of road-making can be 
seen in operation throughout the Protectorate. 
Hundreds of men, women, and children are 
required in the first instance to cultivate the 
portion of the country that has been pegged 
out as a proposed road by one of the white 
officials. It may be ten yards wide or it may 
be thirty ; it may be straight or it may be 
crooked ; it may satisfy one official and be left 
to die by another, who will call upon the chief 
to do all over again elsewhere what is after 
all only a heart-breaking job, for such a road 
must be constantly kept weeded to prevent its 
being lost sight of. 

Naturally the people soon get tired of such 
unending labour, and many of them leave the 
homes of their fathers because situate near a 
road ; and large tracts of land, once well-culti- 
vated gardens, have been given up to long grass 
and leopards. 

Now, and not the dim and distant future, is 
the time to improve the roads, for every year 
the native is in touch with so-called civilisation 
brought in by the Uganda Railway, makes him 
more difficult to deal with and more expensive 
to employ. 

Each chief and people of a district in the 



Cultivation versus Macadam 167 

Uganda and adjoining kingdoms, as well as in 
the country of Usoga, where the natives have 
been under European influence for some years 
past, might be made immediately responsible for 
the construction and maintenance of macadam- 
ised roads. The time spent in breaking stones 
by a few hundred men in each district would 
eventually prove an enormous saving in time, 
temper, and labour. Attempts have also been 
made to utilise certain waterways for the con- 
veyance of merchandise ; and there again the 
" wrong system " was seen at work. At one 
time large gangs of men have been employed 
in cutting down papyrus and clearing away the 
sud ; but gradually the workers disappeared, 
and the work was allowed to drop until the 
growth was as thick as ever, when the labour 
of clearing was begun all over again. 

Definite and sustained effort is badly needed 
in order to perfect transport facilities, and were 
it made known that all taxation would cease for 
one year in any district occupied with road- 
making, with proper punishment of harder 
labour for individuals refusing to do their part, 
the transport problem would be solved, because 
wheeled traffic would be really possible. Another 
very important point touched on is the lack of 
technical instruction. Not a single penny has 
been spent by the Administration on technical 



1 68 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

instruction. Had this been done not only would 
the males of a younger generation have had a 
keener desire for regular manual labour, but 
the present generation would have solved, and 
will even now solve if taught how, the most 
pressing problems. If the idea behind British 
administration in Uganda is not the farming 
of taxes, but the true development of the native 
and his country, then I plead most earnestly 
that technical schools for the teaching of trades 
and agriculture be established by Government 
in each district, and that every boy and girl be 
compelled to attend for no less a period than 
three years. 

The calm way in which the Government 
relegates this and all other education to the 
Christian missionary, making suggestions here 
and requests there, would be most amusing — in 
the face of an education problem at home — were 
it not deplorable. In a country like Uganda 
and neighbouring kingdoms, where there is 
native desire for advancement, and organisation 
already in existence to enable the head of the 
State to deal with each individual, and a very 
substantial revenue, it is the duty of the Govern- 
ment and not the privilege of missions to spend 
money in seeking to develop this side of native 
character. The writer would be sorry to convey 
the idea that he does not recognise the inestim- 



Income and Expenditure 169 

able value to Uganda of England's protection, 
brought about in the year 1894 through the 
influence of the C.M.S. ; but we must not forget 
that there are certain compensations given in 
return, which lay responsibilities and obliga- 
tions upon the protecting Power. 

Out of a computed 19,600 square miles, the 
British Administration took as its own under 
the 1900 agreement 1,500 square miles of forest 
land, and claimed control over 9,000 square 
miles of uncultivated land, which really means 
that we have taken more than half of the land 
for being willing to protect the remainder, and 
then of course we make the remainder pay as 
much as possible of the cost of protection. 

For 1907 the receipts for the whole Protec- 
torate, from hut, gun, and poll taxes were be- 
tween £50,000 and £60,000. Besides this amount 
there were import and export, road and wharf 
dues, registration fees, licence fees, &c., &c., 
bringing the total to a goodly sum, the expen- 
diture of which — with additional grants from 
England — provides not only interesting reading 
but material for serious reflection. 

Some £6,000 is returned annually to the King 
and chiefs of Uganda under the above-men- 
tioned agreement, ^vhereby, as w^e saw at the 
beginning of this chapter, the chiefs became in 
return simply hut-tax collectors. To this, as we 



lyo Uganda to Mount Elgon 

have seen, the Administration has found it 
necessary to add much of their old feudal power, 
and to-day there are no more hard-working, 
painstaking, and loyal men anywhere than the 
Saza chiefs of Uganda ; yet I have heard men 
gravely discuss whether we are justified in pay- 
ing these chiefs their £200 per annum, which is 
£50 less than the allowance to a raw assistant 
collector fresh out from England. 

In my own mind the doubt is whether in a 
Protectorate hke Uganda, with such native 
material ready to hand, infinitely more capable 
than raw youths from England of doing 
collectors' and magistrates' work, we are 
justified in paying any but native officials, with, 
of course, the exception of white leaders as I 
have already suggested. 

If only in addition to the £6,000 spent on 
stipends to the King and chiefs, an additional 
£10,000 could be spent annually for the next ten 
years on providing a commercial, technical, and 
industrial training for picked youngsters drawn 
from the whole Protectorate, how much more 
good it would do than, say, the building of an 
expensive military system ; and surely such 
technical training is far more important. 

The letter from the Chamber of Commerce 
failed to mention that whilst in England the 
wages of a private soldier — including everything 



The Strategic Value of Uganda 171 

— are about equal to those of a labourer, in 
Uganda they are about three times as much ; so 
that a careful native who joins either the police — 
who do military work — or the regular army, can, 
during the first term of service, save as much as 
will enable him to pay hut-tax and meet all his 
needs for many years. 

Thus we have a native problem growing more 
pressing and difficult every day ; and is it any 
wonder ? 

The strategic position of Uganda is another 
valuable asset of England, and it must be held ; 
but it would be wiser and cheaper in the end to 
hold it by Sikhs only, than at this stage of 
Uganda's history to enlist the native, and, by an 
unhealthy rate of pay, jeopardise the develop- 
ment of the country. 

Let it not be thought for a moment that my 
criticism of a system means a criticism of the 
British official, or a suggestion that he is at all 
incapable. As in every class of men, there are 
no doubt good, bad, and indifferent officials ; but 
my experience is chiefly of the good. They are 
men who find a system in existence and try to 
make the best of it ; but would it not be better 
for them and for the Protectorate if the system 
were altered so as — to quote the Right Hon. 
Winston Churchill, who, as Under-Secretary 
for the Colonies, recently visited Uganda — "to 



172 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

organise scientifically, upon a humane and 
honourable line, the industry of an entire 
population, and to apply the whole funds of 
their labour to their own enrichment and 
elevation " ? 

The British official would still be required to 
open up the vast regions north and north-east 
of Uganda, leading right away beyond Lake 
Rudolph to the borders of Abyssinia. 




IXTEKU)R VIP:\V OF MEXGO CATHEUKAL. 




ST. TALLS CATHEDRAL, MENGU, UGANDA. 



1/4 



CHAPTER IX 

THE SIGHTS OF MENGO 

Kampala — Nakasero — Uganda Company, Ltd. — Philan- 
thropy and percentage — Cotton ginning and baling — 
Stones sold at cotton price — Uganda newspapers — Roman 
Catholic Missions — Roman disunion — C.M.S. headquarters 
— The Cathedral and congregation — The Uganda drum 
— Missionary meetings — God's Acre — The Soudanese Re- 
bellion — Sad days — Mengo Hospital — High School — The 
Bishop's Palace. 

FROM the King's hill, although not very 
high, interesting and picturesque glimpses 
of the capital can be secured. 

Behind us lies the Lake ; and soon, I have no 
doubt, the port of Uganda will be Munyonyo, a 
place not more than eight miles from Mengo, 
safe for shipping, and more suitable and con- 
venient in every way than Entebbe, which is 
more than a comfortable day's march from 
where we stand. 

Here, outside the King's fence, we can see 



176 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

the little hill of Kampala, which was the first 
Government station in the country ; and 
curiously enough, because of this, the name of 
the little insignificant hillock now occupied by 
a Commission sent out to inquire into the 
ravages of Specific Disease has been made the 
postal and geographical name for the native 
capital. 

Some years ago the local administrative 
centre was moved from Kampala because of 
its unhealthiness, to Nakasero, a high hill near, 
on which is built the English fort. Here also 
may be seen European and Indian traders, 
catering for the taste, inclination, and need of 
native and white man, with every conceivable 
article. 

Near the foot of the same hill is built the 
factory of the Uganda Company, which was 
floated to take over and develop on practical 
business, yet Christian, lines the industrial work 
of the C.M.S., for which more money could not 
be spared. 

With such a philanthropic aim it secured the 
practical sympathy of many Christian people, 
and also received considerable help from the 
C.M.S., who allowed one of its missionaries to 
transfer his services to the Company as 
manager, which at once gave it a unique 
advantage over ordinary concerns. 



The Uganda Company 177 

On the whole it has done a good work, 
though not quite on the lines expected by 
many ; but no doubt any failure to develop 
its industrial work actually on the lines of a 
Christian Mission has been due more to the 
force of circumstances than lack of inclination. 

If for nothing else, the Uganda Company 
deserves well of England, because of the 
impetus it gave to cotton-growing before any 
one else had moved in that direction ; and a 
visit to the factory, built at great expense — the 
greater because the first of its kind, and all such 
ventures must pay for the privilege of handing, 
down experience — is both interesting and in- 
structive. 

A complete cotton-ginning plant, worked by 
steam-power, controlled by the Baganda under 
the superintendence of Englishmen, can be seen 
in operation, whereby the whole process from 
seed extraction to bale-pressing is carried out 
without a hitch ; reflecting the greatest credit 
on the manager who was responsible for its 
erection. 

This and other factories have now taken their 
place as an accepted part of Uganda life, and 
crowds of natives come in from long distances 
with loads of raw cotton, for which they receive 
about a penny per lb. 

Some two years ago there was such a rush of 



178 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

cotton that the agents feared they would have 
to refuse it for lack of storage room. Tons 
came in every day, and might have continued 
to come in even with a greater rush had a 
casual examination not proved that the 
Baganda were not such innocents as the 
management supposed. A penny per lb. for 
raw cotton leaves a fair margin for all expenses, 
and a good healthy percentage besides ; but 
when quite three-quarters of each lb. is com- 
posed of stone — well, some one is likely to " see 
trouble," as the Baganda express it. 

It was so easy to put a lump of ironstone 
in the middle of a bundle which was merely 
weighed ; and the consequence was that a good 
many stones were bought at cotton price ! 

It was also comparatively easy to walk round 
the building with the load of cotton which 
ought to have been deposited inside ; con- 
sequently a goodly number of Baganda walked 
round the building with their loads and resold 
them to the innocent agent at the scales ! 

There is also a printing department at the 
works of this Company, and I hope the ancient 
borough of Stockton-on-Tees, with which I am 
at present connected, is justly proud of the fact 
that it has provided the superintendent of this 
department. Each month I receive a little 
journal from Uganda — for that country has 



Newspapers in Uganda 179 

now two newspapers, or at any rate monthly 
pamphlets which serve as such : one, Uganda 
Notes for Europeans ; and the other, Ebifa 
Ehuganda, Uganda news for natives, ably edited 
and published by Mr. C J. Phillips, a member 
of the C.M.S. — admirably printed by Baganda 
boys in the works of the Uganda Company. 

In another shop of the Company, and in sheds 
throughout the capital, native men and boys 
are at work upon boards that have been sawn 
in the forests by other natives, and brought to 
Mengo for sale. These are speedily made into 
tables, chairs, doors, shutters, frames, desks, and 
bookshelves, and turned out in fairly good style, 
though lacking that finish which bespeaks the 
master-hand : a fault for which the lack of long 
apprenticeship is responsible. 

Not far from the factory the Company has its 
store for the retailing of imports ; and this, per- 
haps, is the only department to which any 
exception can be taken. It may be argued, with 
some show of justice, that this department 
brings a professedly philanthropic enterprise, 
which has received unique advantage over 
other trades through the help rendered by 
the C.M.S. and its agents, not only into 
competition, but into unfair competition, with 
other traders ; yet in this department the Com- 
pany and the country have been fortunate in 



i8o Uganda to Mount Elgon 

securing the services of a manager who remark- 
ably carries out in his own Kfe and work the 
primary aim of the Company, namely, to try in 
the course of ordinary business to influence and 
elevate the native. 

To the right of Nakasero, and where we stand, 
can be seen the hill of Nsambya, the Uganda 
headquarters of St. Joseph's Mission : a branch 
of St. Joseph's Society for Foreign Missions 
founded at Mill Hill, London, by the late 
Cardinal Vaughan. 

The first Bishop of this Mission left London 
with four priests in May, 1895, the same month 
in which I left with others to begin our journey. 
The priests reached Mengo in September of the 
same year, and we arrived at the end of October, 
having travelled round the Cape of Good Hope. 

This Mission has over twenty thousand 
baptized adherents, many of whom were passed 
over to it with the portion of Uganda allotted 
to its Bishopric from the jurisdiction of the 
French Algerian Mission of the White Fathers, 
whose local headquarters are very prominently 
and substantially built on the hill of Rubaga, 
situate on our left as we stand at the King's 
Gate. 

This latter Mission has had an interesting, 
aye, even exciting time in Uganda, for it is the 
one whose adherents clashed with those of the 



Roman Catholicism in Uganda i8i 

C.M.S. in Lugard's time over the question of 
whether the country was to be French or 
English ; and it is almost pathetic to think that 
its reward has been the French Ecclesiastical 
Coup, from which I understand it only managed 
to save its Algerian property by its transference 
to lay holders, and the setting up in the capital 
of Uganda of another Roman Catholic Bishopric 
with which it has had to share its honours. 

Apropos of Roman Catholicism in Uganda 
and East Africa, I was recently asked why the 
C.M.S. had not a working agreement with lines 
demarcating spheres of influence. I explained 
that this was done for the Mission in the Soudan 
by the Government, but with us since Govern- 
ment has not marked off spheres, and since the 
C.M.S. was first in the field, it would be im- 
possible : the Romanists would not agree to any 
such arrangement. I gave a very striking 
example of Roman Catholic nonconformity — or 
at any rate disunion — which is even now going 
on near Lake Naivasha, where certain priests 
have appeared from the Somali coast, and are 
threatening the Bishoprics of the Uganda and 
Zanzibar Roman Catholic Bishops, who are 
doing their best to keep them out. 

To return to our stand outside the King's 
Gate ; we see right in front of us the English 
Cathedral on the hill of Namirembe ; and a 



1 82 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

weird yet striking edifice it looks, with its three 
thatched pinnacles, all in a row, like the prongs 
of a giant's trident. Thither we now make our 
way, and find it the centre of activity, for the hill 
is the headquarters of the C.M.S. Uganda Mis- 
sion, whose agents are to be found at Wadelai, 
in the north, Nassa, in German territory, to 
the south, beyond Ruwenzori in the west, and 
beyond Mount Elgon in the east. 

The present cathedral is the third which 
has occupied the site during the last few years. 
The two former were miniature forests ; for 
innumerable poles were planted in the ground 
and used to support the woven canopy of 
poles and reeds which carried the thatch. 
They were very useful buildings, but risky ; 
for no pole seemed beyond the appetite of the 
white ant, and the result was a somewhat 
speedy collapse. 

The building we are now viewing is a tre- 
mendous advance on its predecessors, though 
scarcely a permanent structure. It is made of 
sun-dried bricks, and is altogether the work 
of the natives under European supervision. 
Externally it is not a thing of beauty, but a 
glance at the photograph of the interior on 
p. 174 will show that its lines and proportions 
are bold and noble. 

The ordinary Sunday morning congregation 



A Magnificent Congregation 183 

is a sight worth seeing, for often there are not 
less than two thousand people, old and young, 
rich and poor ; some on chairs, others on 
stools, skins, or straw mats. Only the chancel 
is provided with seating, so that the general 
congregation, white or black, must bring their 
own seats if they wish to be raised above 
the level of the floor. May the system long 
continue ! 

Many beautiful skins of leopard and ante- 
lope are seen being carried to and from the 
church ; and this reminds me that recent 
writers have said that the Baganda are noted 
tanners. They are nothing of the kind ; the 
Baganda do not know how to tan, but they 
are remarkable skin-dressers, in the process of 
which they make a liberal use of a knife, a 
stone, and butter. 

The congregation is summoned by the beat- 
ing of a drum or drums — a very important 
factor in the life of a Muganda. 

In the old days the King's drum was sounded 
to summon men to war ; and so perfect was 
their organisation that its sound and sum- 
mons was passed on from hill to hill, so that 
before evening every warrior in the country 
was under arms and on his way to the capital, 
there to receive the appointed general, who 
would lead the army wherever the King wished 

30 



184 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

them to make a raid for cattle or human 
beings. 

The sound is still passed on, but now from 
Namirembe, the hill of peace ; and at its sum- 
mons full sixty thousand people assemble to 
render homage to the King of kings, or to go 
forth among the very nations who hate the 
Baganda for their past oppression, to make 
known to them the Gospel of light and life 
and liberty. 

The morning service may seem somewhat 
lengthy to a European, but he will not fail 
to be impressed by the reverence of the con- 
gregation, their bright and hearty — if to his 
ears unmusical — singing, and by the large 
number of communicants. 

One or two native clergymen assist at the 
service, and it is no unusual thing for a layman 
to preach the sermon, which I can assure 
you is of fifteen minutes' duration — and more. 

The visitor will also be interested and 
amused at the process of evolution evident 
in the attire of the congregation, and he will 
understand that such absurdities are bound 
to show themselves even at solemn times 
and in sacred places, when a nation unused 
to such things is suddenly given the means 
of displaying its most fantastic tastes in colour 
and shape. 



Native Missionary Meetings 187 

A glance at the accompanying picture of a 
wedding party leaving church will show that 
their taste is not always extravagant or un- 
becoming. The only thing at all objectionable 
is the lady's tarbooch, or Turkish cap — one 
stage in the evolution which I am confident 
will soon pass away. 

The cathedral is surrounded by other build- 
ings, in which the ordinary work of schools, 
preparation for baptism and confirmation, and 
the training of teachers is carried on. 

There is a fine school for girls, another for 
women, and another for boys, all built of sun- 
dried brick ; besides which there is an impos- 
ing structure of the same material used as a 
theological hall, in which the teachers and 
clergy are trained. 

The work carried on in these buildings is 
of an extensive, interesting, and useful cha- 
racter, beginning at the very bottom of the 
ladder with ABC, and going right on to 
the higher branches of theology. 

On one day of the week all this teaching 
ceases, and the members assemble to take part 
in a missionary meeting, at which natives, who 
have been labouring in distant corners of the 
Protectorate, tell of their Avork. 

Not a detail is omitted. The number of 
sermons preached, the attitude of the people, 



1 88 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

the kindness or otherwise of the chiefs, the 
dangers encountered, the presents received, the 
amount of food eaten, are all retailed with an 
exactitude most amusing to a foreigner ; but 
besides this there is in some of the addresses 
a deep spiritual tone which is the real life 
of the movement. 

At the close of the addresses an offertory, 
more varied in kind than the English mind 
can conjure up, is made : bananas, sugar-cane, 
eggs, fowls, goats, sheep, cattle, shells, beads, 
pice and rupees are all given, and it is no 
uncommon thing for natives to offer them- 
selves for work in distant and difficult places, 
although I think this is not now so usual as 
at one time. 

On the side of the same hill is the C.M.S. 
Hospital, which was founded in 1897 by Albert 
R. Cook, M.D., B.Sc. Lond., B.A. Camb., who 
was soon afterwards joined by his brother, J. 
Howard Cook, M.S. Lond., F.R.C.S. Eng., M.D. 
Lond., D.T.M.H. Camb. 

To reach the hospital we pass the little 
plot where lie the remains of Bishop Han- 
nington, Pilkington, Hubbard, and others of 
the C.M.S. Mission, and De Winton, Thruston, 
Macdonald, Densham, and others of the Ad- 
ministration. Noble souls, all of them ! 

What memories surge up as we pass their 



The Soudanese Rebellion 189 

resting-place ! We live over again the night 
in 1897 when news came in that Thruston, 
Wilson, and Scott had been taken prisoners 
at Luba's in Usoga by the Soudanese soldiers 
who had refused to follow Colonel (now 
General Sir J. C. R.) Macdonald on his journey- 
north with sealed orders, and had marched 
back from the Ravine Station on to Uganda. 

These men were ever a bad lot, having 
rebelled against the Egyptian Government, 
and when serving Emin Pasha had held him 
prisoner until relieved by Stanley. 

With their leader, Selim Bey, they were 
enlisted in the Lado Enclave by Lugard, and 
placed in charge of the Uganda border forts, 
where they were a greater curse than any 
number of enemies might have been, since 
under Selim Bey they were a Mohammedan 
menace to the peace and stability of Uganda, 
until they were enrolled as Imperial troops. 

But their old nature was too strong for 
them, and now from the fort at Luba's near 
the Nile they had despatched messengers to 
all the soldiers throughout Uganda, calling 
upon them to kill the white men and take 
the country for Mohammed. These emissaries 
had reached the lines at Kampala, and we 
were warned that before morning we should 
probably be attacked and killed. In the event 



190 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

of no attack we were to make our way to 
Kampala Hill next morning and there help to 
disarm the soldiery who could no longer be 
trusted. We did so and succeeded ; but in the 
meantime grave things were happening at 
Luba's, for the rebels there, having been re- 
pulsed by Colonel Macdonald, had brutally shot 
their three white prisoners, Major Thruston, 
Mr. Wilson, and Mr. Scott. 

Then came the news of the fruitless attack 
on the rebel fort by the brave Protestant 
Baganda (most of the Mohammedans were 
wavering or had already thrown in their lot 
with the Soudanese rebels, and many of the 
Roman Catholics had thrown in their lot with 
the rebellion of King Mwanga in the west), 
and of the death of Captain Macdonald (the 
Colonel's brother) and Mr. Pilkington. 

It fell to my lot to speedily build the first 
hospital, to meet the wounded who were 
sent by canoe, and get them carried to the 
capital, where Dr. A. R. Cook worked day and 
night, ably assisted by the Mission ladies, to 
alleviate the terrible sufferings, that had been 
intensified by a long delay en route. 

Graves had to be dug for the Europeans 
killed in Usoga, a coffin made for Pilkington's 
body — the Government made others for their 
own men — and then there was that last sad 



The C.M.S. Hospital 191 

and solemn scene when they were laid to rest 
" in sure and certain hope of the resurrection 
to eternal life, through our Lord Jesus Christ." 

The roses are blooming on their graves, and 
sweetly speak of life, yet we cannot help but 
linger, and picture it all again ; but now let 
us wend our way outside the wall and down 
the hill to the hospital. 

The j&rst branch of the medical work met 
with is the dispensary, known as the " Well- 
come Dispensary," a substantial and very use- 
ful building where cases are diagnosed, medi- 
cines dispensed to thousands of out-patients, 
for whom evangelistic services are held in a 
verandah at one end of the building. 

The hospital itself is a more pretentious 
structure with wards, pathological laboratory, 
and operating-room that will compare very 
favourably with a similar institution anywhere. 

Bodies and souls are well catered for, and 
here, if anywhere, can be refuted the non- 
sensical argument that it is unfair to speak 
to natives about their souls when their bodies 
are in need of healing. 

The Baganda patients soon realise that but 
for the fact that the doctors and nurses are 
impelled by the love of God in Jesus Christ 
to care for them, they would never have come 
out to the country ; and if their Christian 



192 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

doctors and nurses had not come, who else 
would have thought of them? 

The doctors are perfectly fair to every 
patient. All are taken in and attended to ; 
and if there happens to be a Roman Catholic, 
the Mission to which he belongs is communi- 
cated with, and they are allowed to help him 
spiritually. That such work is appreciated by 
the Roman Catholics may be evidenced by the 
fact that they have more than once sent dona- 
tions to the funds. 

After a walk through the wards we make 
our way round the hill to the Mengo High 
School — a feature of the C.M.S. work at the 
capital. 

Inside the usual reed fence is a large court- 
yard, along the sides of which are built board- 
ing-houses for young chiefs, or sons of chiefs, 
who are removed from the evil surroundings 
of home and placed in this school to receive 
a sound mental, moral, and spiritual training. 

The ability shown by the majority of these 
youngsters is remarkable, and will compare 
favourably with that of lads at home. In some 
subjects there is not the least doubt but that 
the black can " lick " the white boy hollow ; 
thus proving that, given opportunity, the 
Baganda, in spite of their colour, might be 
made anything. 




193 



The Bishop and His Palace 195 

The three R's, English, physical exercise, 
swimming, cycling, tennis, footer, Bible and 
Prayer Book, are all taught and excelled in. 

There is another important school called the 
King's School, situate at a place called Budo, 
some distance from the capital, and some of 
the boys from the Mengo High School pass 
into the other on scholarships ; but enough of 
this subject for the present; let us pass on 
and complete our round. 

We began with the capital of British 
Administration, the home of the Governor, 
and made our way to the native capital and 
home of. the King ; and we close this chapter 
at the palace (!) of the Bishop of Uganda — 
Dr. Tucker, who has just completed the eigh- 
teenth year of his episcopate — a native-made 
wattle and daub, thatched bungalow, well- 
w^orn, weather-beaten, and ready to fall, but 
still tenaciously held by his Lordship, as an 
example of what will suffice whilst more im- 
portant things are being attended to. 



CHAPTER X 

THE WORK AND INFLUENCE OF 
MISSIONS 

True Socialism — The life of women — Native missionaries — 
Condition of the Church — Appalling numbers — Numerical 
not necessarily moral strength — Danger of numbers — 
Danger of civilisation — The housing problem — Superficial 
character — Evil living — Johnston's opinion as to Uganda's 
need — A Puritan revival — Secular education — Desire for 
knowledge — Intelligent people — The education problem — 
Duties of Church and State — Church government — White 
missionary not permanent — A constitution — Self-support 
and self -extension — Lack of funds and permanent buildings 
— The crisis of the nation and the Church — Hope — 
Questions of Church practice and discipline — Organisation 
— A division of the diocese. 

THE missionaries of Uganda have always 
striven to implant in the native mind the 
corporate idea of one family in God ; and the 
truly socialistic because Christian idea of man's 
duty to his fellow-man. Their work has lifted 
woman from a position of degradation and 

196 



A Modern Miracle 197 

scorn and made her accepted throughout the 
kingdom as the equal of man. It has made 
family life as sacred a reality to many as it is in 
England ; it has increased the value of human 
life and given to individuals, once thought too 
insignificant and loathsome to be noticed, due 
recognition as men and brethren. Indeed, no 
one who knows the African nature, or who has 
carefully compared the condition of Uganda 
before the introduction of missions, with its 
condition at the present day, can help but 
declare its firm conviction, that we are face to 
face with a modern miracle. 

To see men clamouring to leave home, friends, 
food, security, and chances of advancement to 
go to unknown and inhospitable countries in 
order to preach a Gospel which to them was 
more precious than life, and for which they 
received little or no remuneration, was enough 
to convince the hardest sceptic of their sincerity ; 
yet this was a common sight a year or two ago. 
The wonderful Church — building and people — 
now existing in the country of Toro near the 
Mountains of the Moon is due in great measure 
to the pertinacity, sincerity, and intrinsic good- 
ness of one such man ; but the question is often 
asked, " Are the Christians of Uganda willing to 
do the same to-day ? " 

In some instances Yes, emphatically. No 



198 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

more striking instance of self-sacrifice can be 
given in the world's history than that of the 
woman teacher who, hearing that the people 
of a certain island were dying of sleeping 
sickness and were without any physical or 
spiritual assistance, offered herself for the 
work ; and although efforts were made to dis- 
suade her from undertaking such a task, she 
insisted on going to live and, if need be, to die 
(eventually she did die of sleeping sickness) for 
her fellows — but generally speaking the answer 
must be No. 

There is still life, strength, and effort of a 
high character ; but there is a change in the 
attitude of mind and will, due very largely to 
the changed economic conditions brought about 
by the introduction, via the Uganda Railway, of 
elements which have turned the attentions of 
men into channels, not only other than religious, 
but even irreligious, and have created demands 
that are looked upon as development but do not 
really mean progress. 

In the year 1886 there were two hundred 
baptized members of the Church of England in 
Uganda, and two adults were baptized that year. 
To-day there are more than sixty thousand 
baptized members, and six thousand baptisms 
take place annually. 

Such numbers are almost appalling because of 



The Danger of Numbers 199 

the responsibility of those in authority ; they 
represent progress of a kind, but is it progress 
indicated by such vital godliness, high moral 
principle, general self-sacrifice and missionary 
effort as might be, and ought to be, expected 
from a young and healthy Christian Church 
still full of its first love? In my own mind 
I am convinced that it is not, and for some 
years I have endeavoured to study the cause 
or causes of such a condition of Christian de- 
clension. 

In the first place, the very numerical success 
of Christianity has constituted one of its 
gravest dangers. It grew from beneath just 
as in the time of the apostles, but it gradually 
became the religion of the rich and powerful, 
with the result that the followers and depen- 
dents of the rulers thought it the right and 
honourable thing to seek baptism. 

Every precaution was and is taken to test 
their mental, moral, and spiritual fitness, yet 
only those closely concerned know how impos- 
sible it is to say who ought or who ought not to 
be accepted. 

The man who has not a Christian name and 
who cannot read and write is looked down on 
by his fellows ; consequently Christianity is the 
popular religion of the country, and is paying 
the price of all popularity in being too general. 



200 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

weak, and shallow, rather than deep, strong, and 
lasting. 

With God all things are possible, and we have 
no reason to doubt the value and deep reality of 
the three thousand added to the Church on the 
Day of Pelitecost, but as a general rule large 
numbers are superficial ; and in the Christian 
work in the kingdom of Uganda large numbers 
have been general. 

I have already spoken of glorious work 
done ; of the power of the Gospel message in 
the lives of many ; so I cannot be misunder- 
stood when I refer to facts on the other side, 
which every missionary deplores and endeavours 
to combat. 

Secondly, it seems to me that although the 
Gospel had a good start in Uganda, making 
whoever really accepted it purer, happier, more 
unselfish and useful, yet it was working these 
wonders among a people more useless, selfish, 
weak, superficial, and cruel than any with 
whom we have been hitherto familiar. This 
being so it is foolish to expect that an ignorant 
people of naturally weak, shallow character 
and low standard of morality would not suffer 
from the sudden presentation by the Uganda 
Railway of Coast, Indian, and European civili- 
sation. 

They have suffered terribly, for the storm of 



Mental Alertness 201 

temptation has been most severe ; and one 
of the saddest features of the case is, that at 
the very moment when pastors and people need 
to be drawn very closely together, to understand 
each other, and learn to grapple with perhaps 
the one great crisis in the nation's religious 
history, the new ideas of housing have taken 
such a hold upon European and native, as to 
prevent their being thrown together as they 
were a few years ago, when privacy was at a 
discount and fellowship all important. 

The alertness of the native mind, but also its 
superficiality, has made them jump at the con- 
crete parts of the missionary's teaching upon 
the necessity for bettering their social condition ; 
and they have to a large extent given them- 
selves up to the questions of building, banking, 
sleeping, cooking, clothing, and eating to the 
exclusion of the development of moral prin- 
ciple. 

Professedly Christian men openly speak about 
the infidelity of their professedly Christian 
wives, declaring that there is no such thing 
as faithfulness among the women of their 
country : we know there is much faithlessness 
amongst the men, and sleeping sickness is not 
the only scourge responsible for decimating the 
kingdom — the kingdom which at one time had a 
population of nearly two millions, but to-day is 



202 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

little more than six hundred thousand, the 
population of Liverpool. Venereal disease is 
working sad havoc everywhere, so much so 
that a special commission has been appointed 
to deal with the matter. 

It is not very difficult to get a wrong and 
exaggerated view of such a subject, and such 
it seems to me was presented to the United 
Services Medical Society, and reported in the 
Lancet of October, 1908. 

In his paper Colonel Lamkin states that in 
some districts as many as 90 per cent, suffer 
from Specific Disease ; and that it produces 
infant mortality to the extent of 50 or 60 per 
cent. 

The first place in the cause of the epidemic 
is attributed to the interference by Christian 
teaching and teachers with the tribal laws and 
customs of the people. 

On both these points the Drs. Cook, who 
know all there is to know about Uganda and its 
people, traverse the Colonel's paper ; and show 
very conclusively that the ravages of the disease 
have not affected more than 194 per cent, in 
the most populous district ; whilst on the second 
head they] insist on the word civilisation rather 
than Christianity as the potent cause of the 
trouble. 

It may not be out of place to emphasise here 



Sir H. H. Johnston 203 

my strong belief in the power of the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ, not to create such licence as is 
responsible for the terrible evils mentioned 
above, but to guide and regulate the liberty, 
all too hastily given to the Baganda, into right 
and useful channels. 

This emphasis cannot be better illustrated 
than by the words of Sir H. H. Johnston, who 
not long ago was Commissioner in Uganda : — 

" If the Baganda are to be saved from dying 
out as a race — and I cannot but believe and 
hope they will — it will be entirely through the 
introduction of Christianity and the teaching of 
the missionaries, both Roman and Anglican. 
The introduction of monogamy as a universally 
recognised principle now amongst all people who 
desire to conform to mission teaching may be 
the salvation of Uganda, strange to say. The 
people through this teaching are now becoming 
ashamed of marrying girls who have led a bad 
life before marriage. The appreciation of female 
chastity is distinctly rising, while at the same 
time young men find debauchery no longer 
fashionable, and endeavour to marry early and 
become the fathers of families. If ever a race 
needed a Puritan revival to save it from ex- 
tinction it is the Baganda, and if ever Christian 
missions did positive and unqualified good 
among a negro race this good has been accom- 

11 



204 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

plished in Uganda, where their teaching has 
turned the current of the more intelligent 
people's thoughts towards the physical advan- 
tages of chastity " (" The Uganda Protectorate," 
p. 642). 

Surely we have at once in this quotation 
any answer necessary to Colonel Lamkin's in- 
dictment of missionary work, and also the 
only hope for the future. God grant that 
the " Puritan revival " may not be long 
delayed ! 

I am also firmly convinced that the present 
stagnation in the religious life of the people of 
Uganda is connected with the tendency to side- 
track the Church and its agents along the line 
of secular education. 

There is an insatiable desire for knowledge on 
the part of the Baganda, and they are people 
of undoubted intelligence, far more highly de- 
veloped than that of the surrounding tribes ; 
and I recognise the need for such education as 
will lead to the useful occupation of minds and 
bodies of such a people no longer given over to 
constant warfare. Up to a certain point the 
C.M.S. has given such education ; for all its work 
in Uganda, whilst primarily evangelistic, has of 
necessity been educational of a very practical 
character ; so much so, that not only has every 
candidate for baptism learned to read, but I dare 




»~ i^''-4™te.K 



205 



Education and Evangelization 207 

to say that had there been no church on the hill 
there would have been no factory in the valley. 

In its High School at Mengo it has also 
sought to meet on its own terms what seems 
to me any need for higher education ; since its 
teaching is of such a character that, although 
it is carried on amongst youths who have been 
baptized, it is definitely evangelistic. From 
beginning to end it is an effort to remove young 
chiefs, and the sons of chiefs, from immoral 
surroundings, and to strengthen their mental 
and moral faculties through the influence of 
Gospel teaching. 

The tendency of the times, however, is to 
demand from the missions educational work 
not primarily evangelistic, bvit such as will 
supply the requisite number of clerks, cooks, 
and carpenters. 

There is no reason why missionary teachers 
should not be used to give such training to the 
Baganda if they or the Administration pay for 
it, and thus allow for the provision of other 
missionaries to do the work for which the 
Missionary Societies exist, and for which vast 
districts with far greater populations than 
Uganda are waiting. But there seems every 
reason why the O.M.S. should not give way 
to the popular cry, and set aside laity and 
clergy provided for out of funds gathered for 



2o8 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

evangelistic purposes, to build up a general 
elementary education system throughout the 
country, or a higher educational system 
amongst youths already baptized, confirmed, 
and possessed of as practical, workaday an 
education as the average youth in England, 
and who may never give the Church's need 
one iota in return. 

This latter system appears to be the trend and 
danger of one mission school recently begun 
in the country, and I sincerely trust that the 
idea will not grow ; for the condition of 
Uganda is not analogous to that of India, 
where educational work is often the only 
means of reaching a large population with the 
principles of the Gospel. 

The freedom of choice in their life's work 
offered to the students of such a school is un- 
doubtedly ideal ; but the payment of teachers 
ought not to fall upon missionary funds, i.e., 
upon those who have not as good educational 
advantages for their own boys, and who are 
really poorer than the Baganda whose teachers 
they are asked to pay. 

The work of the Mengo High School, already 
referred to, if strengthened and developed so 
that all who wish to pay for the teaching, and 
the teacher, might send their sons and daughters 
(there are a number of poor lads being paid 



Work of Church and State 209 

for by the native Church, chiefs, and friends 
at home — and this might be extended), and 
with a special department with higher teach- 
ing as preparation for definite missionary 
and ministerial work, is, with a theological 
college for teachers and clergy, all the edu- 
cation work the Church need trouble about. 
More than this will at present hamper mission- 
ary extension, and in time lead to difficulties 
such as are now threatening the Church at 
home, for history has a way of repeating 
itself. 

Let it not be thought that I deprecate the 
value of true education ; but I do not wish 
the good to take the place of the best, and 
therefore say, let the State authorities take 
up at once their own responsibilities, and in 
the name of God's only-begotten Son, who 
has given us our marching orders, let the 
Church do its work of preaching the Gospel ; 
for that, and that alone, was the cause of 
success in Uganda. 

Another element of danger to the Church 
of Uganda, and reason for the present colour 
feeling, lukewarmness, and general down-grade 
tendency manifested by many Christians, is 
the supposed lack of sympathy and confidence 
shown towards them by their white teachers. 

I need not emphasise the word supposed; 



2IO Uganda to Mount Elgon 

that will be taken for granted by all who 
have come into touch with Uganda missionaries ; 
but as in a former chapter I expressed my firm 
conviction that with very little British help the 
people of Uganda and surrounding kingdoms 
might be made to cheaply govern themselves, 
with results as good, if not better than those 
now forthcoming, so here I declare that I feel 
very strongly the time has come (if the oppor- 
tunity has not already passed away) to give 
the native Christian of Uganda a good deal 
more say in the management of his own 
Church affairs. 

Circumstances make the man, and since God 
has allowed the circumstances of marvellous 
missionary success, and the formation of a 
native Church, I cannot help but think He 
has, somewhere in Uganda, the native leaders 
necessary for such a Church if only they were 
allowed to lead. 

The Church, like the Government, will suffer 
if the v^^hite man has a wrong idea as to the 
purpose of his presence in the country. Per- 
manence, whilst the first thought with regard 
to his work, should be the very last thought 
in the missionary's mind with regard to him- 
self, and woe betide the Church, goodbye to 
all native development, where the missionary, 
because of a mistaken idea of native ability 



Native Responsibility 211 

or the danger of native responsibility, undue 
attachment to his own particular work, lan- 
guage limitation, or the circumstances of 
married family life, settles down to the 
" country rector " sort of life, where the work 
could be done as well if not better by a native 
pastor. 

" Failure," says some one, — " utter failure." 
Failure, yes, that is to be expected again and 
again, for by failure the Baganda will learn ; 
but not " utter failure," for all the evidence 
goes to prove that where the Muganda has been 
trusted with responsibility, he has done extra- 
ordinarily well, but that where he has been 
a factotum to the white man he has been more 
or less a failure. 

Happy the day for Uganda Christianity 
when the white men give all pastoral work 
into the hands of natives organised and directed 
for some years to come by an itinerant over- 
pastor or archdeacon. Such a move would 
at once set free some experienced clergy and 
laymen to push out as pioneers to untouched 
countries, and would hasten the establishment 
of a self-supporting and self-governing Church, 
as well as kill the present native attitude of 
"Why need I worry, work, pay, or be present? 
— the white man is responsible for everything." 

These problems have long been in the mind 



212 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

of Uganda's Bishop, Dr. Tucker, and he has 
striven incessantly for years to form a native 
Church with a constitution which places the 
native in such a position that he may one day 
become the head of his own branch of the 
Anglican Communion. 

This constitution, accepted by native and 
European, is now in operation, and from it we 
may expect great things, since it seeks to 
develop independence, place responsibility upon 
the right shoulders, and make the Church self- 
supporting and self-extending. 

In the matter of self-support the Baganda 
have in the past nobly responded in order to 
meet every need ; but I believe I am right in 
saying that at the present moment the financial 
condition of the Church is something worse 
than "from hand to mouth." 

The innumerable calls for teachers, and the 
magnificent response, have been met by native 
funds ; but the demands of the speedy growth 
and magnitude of the work have prevented 
those in authority from giving that attention 
to the organisation and development of the 
material side which the Church now requires. 
And at the very moment when we are thinking 
of religious independence for the Baganda, 
we are brought up somewhat sharply by the 
facts that the coffers are empty ; with the 



Hope for the Future 213 

exception of one in Toro, there is no per- 
manent church building in the country ; and 
the crisis of the nation and the Church is upon 
us through the mental, moral, social, and 
spiritual balance of the people having been 
upset by the too sudden presentation by the 
Uganda Railway of the material side of civili- 
sation. 

It will take some time to readjust their point 
of vision ; and in the meantime, God grant 
that their attention may not be w^holly taken 
up with cycles, watches, cutlery, clothing, houses, 
and Company shares ! 

A dull picture, probably : but I am wholly 
optimistic with regard to the power of the 
Gospel. I am also perfectly certain that the 
Christianity which withstood the persecutions 
of King Mwanga will live through the present 
critical stage of transition, and will emerge 
numerically smaller, no doubt, but brighter, 
stronger, and more real than ever before. 

I have not yet seen Bishop Tucker's book 
recounting his past eighteen years' experience, 
but I have no doubt he there refers at length 
to the constitution of the Church in Uganda, 
so I need not speak further of it here. We are 
part of the English Church, so of course our 
services are the same ; but I have often been 
asked about the nature of the elements used in 



214 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

the celebration of the Holy Communion ; and 
would explain that red wine is used in the 
cathedral church, and wherever else men have 
it ; otherwise a native substitute is used. Per- 
sonally I think this diversity of use a great pity, 
and wish the national drink of Uganda could be 
sanctioned ; for as I do not believe that the 
efficacy of that blessed sacrament depends upon 
the time of its celebration, so I think it very 
unwise to convey to a nation's mind the idea 
that its efficacy depends upon the colour of 
the material in the cup, and so force them 
to begin an import which will not eventually 
be confined to Church use. 

That the material itself is not the important 
factor may be argued from the diverse use in 
the English Church at home. In one Church 
there may be used an insipid mixture of coloured 
sugar and water, and in another a cheap 
poisonous port, neither of which ever saw a 
grape ; so I cannot think that a universal use 
in the Church of Uganda of the unfermented 
native wine — a drink made from bananas — 
would be at all wrong or inexpedient. 

"The best and purest Wheat Bread that 
conveniently may be gotten" is used at the 
capital and wherever else flour is procurable, 
and a person can bake it ; but there are times 
when it is not procurable, and I cannot think 



Church Uses and DiscipHne 215 

that under such circumstances the injunction 
"that all things be done to edifying" is more 
reasonably carried out by the use of a 
questionable biscuit than by the use of " such 
(food) as is usual to be eaten," viz., a baked 
plantain. 

Is this not an occasion when, according to 
Article 34, " Tradition . . . may be changed 
according to the diversities of countries, times, 
and men's manners " ? 

Another common question refers to dis- 
cipline : " How do you deal with professing 
Christians who continue to live in flagrant 
sm ? 

At one time we dealt with them by exhorta- 
tion and expostulation, and when these failed 
they were excommunicated. But now such a 
thing is almost impossible, owing to the fact 
that we have no working agreement with the 
Roman Catholics, who will receive those who 
go over from the Anglican Church. In my 
first district there ^vas a chief who had led 
a clean and good life until he was baptized 
into our branch of the Church. Then he began 
to go back, and became, what he had probably 
been before preparing for baptism, one of the 
biggest rascals it has ever been my lot to meet. 
I did my best to help him, and got kindly 
natives to deal with him, but all to no purpose ; 



2i6 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

so I warned him that there was nothing left 
but excommunication. His case was to come 
before the Central Church Council at Mengo 
on a certain Saturday, and he left his country 
place a day or two before to go up to the 
capital. On the day when he ought to have 
appeared before the Church Council to show 
reason why he should not be publicly excom- 
municated he was parading the capital laden 
with rosaries, medallions, and crucifixes, declar- 
ing that he had found a better religion than 
ours, having become a Mufalasa, i.e., a French- 
man. Although leading a wretchedly bad life, 
he had been received into the Roman Catholic 
Church — a thing which could not have happened 
had there been a working agreement between 
us to deal with such cases. 

The feeling that we should be driving them 
to the other side, and probably the fear to lose 
some of those in authority, is responsible to 
some extent for the general weakening of 
Church authority consequent upon the disuse 
of excommunication. 

The present Bishop of Uganda, with the 
assistance of men like Gordon, Walker, Pil- 
kington, Baskerville, and others, has done 
a glorious work, which is now at the parting 
of the ways ; and much depends upon the 
Church's rulers as to what the future will be. 



Need for a New Diocese 217 

The size of the diocese is detrimental to real 
progress, for it is impossible to give it adequate 
supervision, and to keep in close touch with 
and supply the varying needs which require 
unwavering continuity of purpose. 

An Executive Committee does not meet the 
need, for it is no part of the native Church ; 
and members, because of the pressing needs 
of their own districts, or because they are 
totally ignorant of the needs and exigences 
of w^ork in other parts, are not always able 
to give that adequate consideration necessary 
to develop a work which requires chiefly 
tenacious continuity of purpose. 

The Bishop, as head of the Church, is the one 
to give close attention to the development of 
its constitution, with its ideas of self-govern- 
ment, self-support, extension, &c., and if the 
present or future Bishop of Uganda is to do 
this, his work must be considerably minimised 
by division and the formation of another 
diocese between Uganda and Mombasa. 

The new diocese should extend from Nassa 
to Abyssinia, and from Usoga to the Kikuya 
Escarpment, and would contain more than 
six millions of inhabitants whose language and 
mode of living mark them off very definitely 
from the peoples of Uganda, Usoga, Unyoro, 
and Toro. 



2i8 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

Mount Elgon district would be the very 
centi'e of such a diocese ; therefore strengthen 
and develop the work at that centre — a dis- 
tributing base convenient in every way. 




ROUGH MAP OF USOGA 
ScaU approx. i inch = 17 tmlcs. 



THE CENTRAL PROVINCE. 



References. 
C.M.S. Europeao Stations 
C.M.S. Stations. Native Teachers 
Other Missloa Stations 
Rest Houses 
Government Stations 
Roads _ 



t 
9 



CHAPTER XI 
THROUGH USOGA 

A journey eastward — Kyagwe — Ham Mukasa — A visit to 
England — Samwili Kangawo — Perfect gentleman — Way- 
side camps — A view of Lake Victoria and Usoga — Eipon 
Falls — Whence the Nile springs — A dangerous ferry — 
A unique welcome — Jinja and its possibilities — From Lake 
Victoria to Egypt — Agriculture — Road-making — A good 
centre — Clever thieves — Slow work — Christian revenge — 
Famine — Hut-tax returns — Value of a paramount chief. 

OUR journey must be continued ; and having 
seen what there is to see in Uganda, 
and having ascertained that Masaba is a 
country situate on the slopes of the extinct 
volcano, Mount Elgon, our next businesss was 
to get there. 

It might have been reached direct from Port 
Florence, the terminus of the Uganda Railway, 
by marching north through the part of 
Kavirondo occupied by Nilotic people, and 
on through the Bantu people at Mumia's. This 
journey in itself would be a revelation and 

223 



2 24 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

education to many ; but having crossed the 
Lake Victoria, I prefer to take you from 
Namirembi, directly east, via the birthplace 
of the river Nile, through the country of 
Bishop Hannington's martyrdom, the scene 
of sleeping-sickness ravages, and on into 
regions until this last year or two unknown. 

After waiting for loads long delayed on 
the railway, then again for porters to carry 
them, we set off through Kyagwe, the eastern 
district of Uganda, a most beautiful country 
with the road running through well-tended 
banana gardens and ideal tropical forests. 

The native head of this district is Ham 
Mukasa, the intelligent Muganda who accom- 
panied the Katikiro, or Prime Minister, to 
England for the Coronation of King Edward. 
No traveller to Uganda should miss the 
opportunity of coming into touch with this 
chief, or his friend Samwili (Samuel) Kangawo, 
chief of the district Bulemezi, north of Mengo. 
He will be astonished to find such intelligence, 
strong character, perfect gentlemanliness, real 
goodness, and deep religious feeling, without 
a suspicion of cant. He will also learn, on 
passing through Kyagwe, that its chief is 
practical in his administration, stern in the 
suppression of lawlessness, and just yet 
merciful to offenders. 



A Native Gentleman 225 

As we approach his place we are met by 
runners who give us their chief's greetings, 
and soon we meet the gentleman himself ; 
for he has ridden out some distance on his 
cycle to welcome us, and, with his retinue, 
he escorts us to his house for rest and refresh- 
ment. 

English chairs, or chairs made in Uganda 
from an English pattern, are provided for the 
guests, and tea is served in proper style, during 
which the wife and child of our host are 
presented to us, and crowds of natives 
assemble to do honour to their chief's guests. 

Kindness, tact, and courtesy seem charac- 
teristic of this man, and as an illustration 
let me say how well I remember his staying 
in my camp until very late at night in order 
to help mend a bicycle that had met with 
an accident on the way. 

Our pleasant visit to this chief was all too 
short ; we found him interested in the spiritual 
and social welfare of his people, keenly anxious 
to help the poorest person in his district, and 
not forgetful of the welfare of his guests and 
their porters. Messengers were sent off in 
front of us, to warn the people along the 
road of our approach, and requesting them 
to provide food for the porters, for which 
they would be paid. 

12 



2 26 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

We had three days' march after leaving 
Ham Mukasa before we reached the Nile ; 
and twice we slept in the camping-places 
prepared for the use of travellers. As a rule 
these places are fenced off in order to provide 
some protection against thieves and wild beasts. 
There is a place for the European's tent to 
be pitched, a rest-house for his men, and some- 
times a little thatched place in which the 
traveller may sit during the heat of the day — 
an undoubted boon, but, owing to the preva- 
lence of the tick, responsible for conveying 
Spirillum fever, they have become veritable 
death-traps. 

Pushing on still eastward, we reach Nyenga, 
and get an exquisite glimpse of Lake Victoria, 
backed by thickly wooded Usoga. From here 
it is a rapid descent to the lakeside and 
more particularly to the interesting spot 
where the water dashes over the Ripon Falls 
to form the Nile. 

Undoubtedly the traveller will be somewhat 
disappointed if he expects to see the water 
falling from a great height, but he will not 
be disappointed in the amount rushing over. 
The prettiness of the scene immediately near 
the Falls has been recently considerably modi- 
fied ; for the dread scourge of sleeping sickness 
has made it imperative to cut down all trees 



A Dangerous Ferry 227 

and bushes that lined the banks of the 
stream. 

In the pool above the Falls crocodiles and 
hippopotami abound, and since these are a 
menace to the users of the public ferry between 
Uganda and Usoga, it is allowable to shoot 
them without having procured a licence. No 
doubt the powers that be realised that the 
ferry, crossing as it did, until quite recently, 
very near to the Falls and without any pro- 
tection in bad weather, and carried on by 
means of the laced native canoe from which 
the keel-board has been known to fall when 
crossing, was danger enough to the traveller. 
Perhaps the time is not very far distant when 
not only will the crocs and hippos be cleared 
from Napoleon Gulf, but a small oil launch 
will run from shore to shore ; and even now 
the spicy feehng of possibly drifting over the 
Falls might be taken away by drawing a wire 
cable from Uganda to Usoga. 

We must deal, however, with things as they 
are, and sit down on the Lake shore until 
a few canoes have been collected together. 
With gentle persuasion and much force the 
mule is pushed and lifted into one, a milch 
cow into another, the loads into another, and 
ourselves into a fourth. The native porters, 
firmly believing they will be safer with a 



22 8 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

European, make a rush for our boat, with 
the result that we are all but swamped, and 
another half -hour is wasted in adjusting, 
shouting, and threatening before we can leave 
the shore of Uganda. 

One notable crossing I made recently at 
this ferry was with the Rt. Rev. Dr. Tucker, 
Bishop of Uganda, who was leaving Uganda 
to visit the vast regions forming the eastern 
portion of his diocese. He was expected at 
Jinja to confirm the many candidates, young 
and old, who had been prepared by the Rev. 
T. R. Buckley, B.A. L.L.B., now Archdeacon 
of Usoga ; and remembering how short a 
time it is since Bishop Hannington was 
murdered in this very district, the reception 
accorded to his successor seemed nothing 
short of wonderful. As our canoes approached 
the shore of Usoga, we could see Buckley 
with his school lads, the sons of chiefs, and 
practically all the chiefs of the country waiting 
to welcome their Bishop (even the old man 
Luba, who had killed Hannington, though 
dying, was represented), and with the others 
helped to send up a good imitation of a 
British " Hip, hip, hurrah ! " when the Bishop 
stepped out of his canoe. 

It seemed hardly credible that this could 
be the country of Usoga, and these its people. 




THE VENERABLE T. R. BLXKLEY, B.A., LL.B. 



229 



Good Work and Workers 231 

Only a short time ago it was subject to the 
tyrannical rule of Uganda, whose meanest 
peasant despised the Usoga people, and looked 
upon them as lawful game, yet here were 
men and women escorting us from the ferry 
to the Mission station, whose faces had quite 
lost the crafty, hunted, and fearful look so 
often seen on the downtrodden African ; 
whilst in its place could be detected calm 
strength and dignity, thanks to the work of 
such Government officers as the two Grants, 
Boyle, and Cubitt, and missionaries like 
Buckley, Wilson, and Skeens. " The persever- 
ing, patient, quiet life of Buckley, living there 
among the natives in his £30 mud-house, has 
done more for us fellows and for the country 
than any outsider can ever know," said a 
Government officer to me ; and to see the 
native chiefs around him, and their attitude 
to each other on that day of the Bishop's 
arrival, enabled me to understand what the 
officer meant. 

As we looked from chief to chief we soon 
realised that the sleeping sickness had been no 
respecter of persons ; this one and that one 
well known to us had passed away, and vast 
districts through which the Bishop and I had 
travelled years before, and found teeming with 
population, are now^ as hoTvling wildernesses. 



232 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

Jinja is an important place, and likely to 
become more so, for it is the Government 
headquarters for the Central Province of the 
Uganda Protectorate. It is healthily and 
beautifully situated, overlooking the Ripon 
Falls and the Napoleon Gulf. The Uganda 
Railway has recently completed a very good 
pier, along the side of which the Lake steamers 
are berthed when they call each week to 
take off the large exports of ivory, hides, 
skins, ground nuts, and pepper. 

There is very little doubt but that soon we 
shall have here a large power station, certainly 
to supply all local needs, and, let us hope, to 
be used to open out the countries lying east 
between Jinja and Kisumu. 

It is now possible to travel from Jinja 
down the Nile to Unyoro and on to Egypt. 
This route was followed by the Right Hon. 
Winston Churchill on his recent tour through 
East Africa and Uganda. The Government 
propose to run a railway from Jinja to 
Kakindu, a place on the Nile about forty 
miles north, where a small steamer will meet 
passengers and take them on through Lake 
Kyoga to Unyoro. A survey party has also 
actually started to map out a line from the 
Nile through Masindi in Unyoro to Butiaba 
on Lake Albert Edward, thus bringing Jinja 



Jinj 



a 233 



into direct communication with the Congo 
Free State. 

Usoga has a far richer soil than Uganda, 
and even now the natives are experimenting 
with cotton-growing ; but unfortvmately there 
is no one to buy it from them after it is 
grown. Perhaps soon we shall see gins and 
baling presses here at Jinja, with such water- 
power at hand, and the steamer only a few yards 
off ready to receive shipments for Europe. 

A beginning has been made with rubber-tree 
planting, but already two planters have died 
from blackwater fever; and men taking up 
such work should never live and work alone, 
for by working in pairs it might be possible 
to arrange for change and rest when necessary, 
instead of having to succumb as much to worry 
and work as to fever. 

The position of Jinja will always prevent its 
becoming a great native centre on account of 
the food difficulty ; and since Tve must leave, let 
us push on eastward to Iganga, the natural 
capital of the country, where once there was 
a Government Boma and where again, I have 
little doubt, will be set up the headquarters of 
native administration. Iganga is only eight 
miles from the Lake ; it is very central, thickly 
populated, has a good food supply, and from 
it native-made roads running in all directions. 



2 34 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

Nowhere in the Uganda Protectorate has 
there been a greater waste of native labour 
than on the road running east from Jinja 
through Iganga. A necessary waste, maybe, 
under the circumstances, but a waste never- 
theless, and it must be gratifying to native 
and European to know that the Government 
intend to spend £2,000 this year on a properly 
made road. 

Unfortunately, the sleeping sickness seems 
specially busy in this centre, and the Govern- 
ment has recently opened a camp for patients. 
The C.M.S. agents have done a good deal of 
work amongst the sufferers, but since little 
relief and no cure is possible the work is 
specially difficult. 

The C.M.S. has had a station here for some 
years, and a wonderful work has been done 
among a people despised by the Baganda and 
notorious for many evil practices. 

The Baganda are clever thieves, but are not 
to be compared with the Basoga. 

Some years ago, before the Uganda Railway 
was built, when about to travel down country 
I had occasion to encamp for some days in 
Usoga for the purpose of buying food for my 
porters. I knew the people were given to 
stealing, for they had actually taken the rifles 
from some of the Indian soldiers who were 



Clever Thieves 235 

sent up to Uganda after the Soudanese re- 
bellion, but as there was nothing of great 
value in my camp I hoped we should be 
unmolested. 

All went well until the food supply was com- 
plete and preparations made for an early start. 
Each porter retired to rest with his bag of meal 
under his head, but before morning every 
vestige of food had been taken and my tent 
rifled. I begged the men not to make an out- 
cry, but to rest until the morning and then go 
on with the packing and preparation for the 
march as if nothing had happened. I was busy 
at breakfast when a princess and acting chief 
appeared and commiserated me on my losses ; 
I was sure the ruse was working and that we 
had found the thieves, for how otherwise could 
they know of the matter ? And you can imagine 
their consternation when, instead of allowing 
them to leave my camp immediately after con- 
doling with me, I declared my intention of 
taking them on to the nearest Government 
officer. For very shame they dared not bring 
back the meal and cloth stolen, but they 
immediately offered to pay the value in goats 
and sheep. 

This thieving trait in the character of the 
Basoga has been developed under proper 
teachers organised by the chiefs, and I am 



236 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

thankful to say it is dying out under the stern 
measures of the Government and the influence 
of Christian Missions. 

Iganga has always been a trying station, and 
the Europeans have suffered a good deal from 
thieves, wild animals, and disease. The Mission 
ladies have often had attempts made to enter 
their house at night-time ; leopards repeatedly 
walk across their courtyard, and not long ago, 
whilst I was there, a sleeping-sickness patient 
was carried off by a hyaena or leopard from a 
hut within the compound. On another visit I 
found one of the ladies who had been waiting 
upon this very patient down with blackwater 
fever, to which she succumbed after only a few 
days' illness. 

Slow, dull, and trying for missionary and 
administrator this work in Usoga ; but already 
the reward is wonderfully encouraging. Thou- 
sands under instruction, many showing evidence 
of mental ability that will compare favourably 
with that of the average boy or girl in England. 
A large number of capable native teachers, a 
number of promising candidates for the ministry 
and young chiefs who would have sunk only too 
readily into the slough of their forefathers are 
being mentally, morally, and physically pre- 
pared for the task of ruling their districts in 
accordance not only with England's laws, but 




SEMEI KAKUNGLLU. 



238 



A Noble Revenge 239 

also that authority responsible for England's 
greatness — the Word of God. 

Such is the revenge of the C.M.S. and 
Christian England on Usoga for the murder 
of Bishop Hannington ; and this revenge must 
have appealed to the most bigoted heathen 
when, as a climax, the son of the murdered 
Bishop baptized the son of the murderer " into 
the name of the Father and of the Son and of 
the Holy Ghost." 

Even as I write, the news has reached England 
that Usoga has been visited by a famine and 
some thousands of people have died in spite of 
the efforts of Government officers and mission- 
aries. Such a condition of things will continue, 
I presume, until the resources of the country 
are so organised that every nerve is not 
stretched to secure big hut-tax returns, but to 
teach the people that they need not succumb 
at the first prolonged drought. 

It is interesting, too, to note that although 
Usoga is sometimes held up as an example of 
what can be done in the "way of hut-tax returns 
without any definite payment to chiefs, such as 
we have seen prevails in Uganda, it has been 
found necessary to take a capable and influential 
Muganda chief — Semei Kakungulu — and set him 
as president over the other chiefs, to develop in 
the minds of the Basoga the more advanced, yet 



240 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

ancient, methods of the Baganda, based on the 
feudal system. 

It would be infinitely cheaper, quite as efficient, 
and undoubtedly practicable, were Semei Kakun- 
gulu made absolute paramount chief of the 
Central Province and an Administration set up 
in accordance with the idea already proposed 
for Uganda and neighbouring kingdoms — i.e., 
Semei Kakungulu and the native chiefs, under 
the direction of a capable white adviser, would 
do the work of the present junior officials. 



CHAPTER XII 

ON THE MARCH IN UNKNOWN LANDS 

Bukedi — Eiver Mpologoma — Dug-out canoes — Papyrus — Dis- 
enchantment — Strange dwelling-places — Lake Kyoga — 
Floating islands — A spicy experience — Teso country — 
Clothing despised — Remarkable village fences — Curious 
ornaments — The care of children — Precautions for benefit 
of girls — Fear of a mother-in-law — Mission work — Lake 
Salisbury — A primitive race — Turkana people — Hair-dress- 
ing and use of pillows. 

UNTIL quite recently Usoga was the limit 
of the Baganda marauding expeditions, 
and beyond that the vast countries stretching 
away to Lake Rudolph and Abyssinia were all 
denominated by the one word Bukedi, a word 
corrupted by the Baganda from Ukidi, the name 
of a district in the Teso country, and conveying 
to the Baganda mind a great land inhabited by 
dangerous, naked savages. 

I have journeyed into these countries from 
rail-head at Kisumu, from our last resting- 

241 



242 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

place, Iganga, going directly east, and also from 
Iganga, going north via Kamuli on to Lake 
Kyoga, and thence in canoe to Bukedi, or, 
more explicitly, Teso. 

Let us now march directly east, my wife 
having taken her place in the hammock I 
made to help her along. 

In three marches from Iganga we are at the 
side of a great expanse of water which the 
natives at this point call Mpologoma, or Lion. 
This water has been described as a backwash 
of the Nile, and it has also been mapped as a 
swamp, but after careful observation I have 
been able to map it as a river, and one of the 
chief rivers to carry off the waters from Mount 
Elgon to Lake Kyoga and thence to the Nile. 

Former travellers may well have supposed the 
River Mpologoma a swamp or lake, for where it 
is touched in Usoga by the ordinary trade route 
it is one mass of papyrus, through which the 
natives have cut a passage for their dug-out 
canoes. 

This passage has recently been declared a 
Government ferry, which means, I suppose, 
that the natives will still have to provide the 
means of transit and pay for the privilege of 
doing so. 

It is a source of amazement to stand at the 
river-side in the early morning before the sun 



The River Mpologoma 243 

has looked over Mount Elgon, when a silence 
which can be felt reigns supreme, to hear your 
cries for boatmen come back to you with a 
hopelessness that suggests death and desola- 
tion, and then to see a weird figure standing 
erect on a small piece of wood, across which 
the water pours, shoot out from the high- 
growing papyrus, paddle himself swiftly to 
within a few yards of you to comfort you 
with the assurance that large canoes will soon 
be on the spot. 

The meaning of the word soon is undoubtedly 
relative, for to the African it may mean two 
hours, a day, or even longer ; still, since " all 
things come to him who waits," even the giant 
dug-out canoes on the river Mpologoma appear, 
brought from their hiding-places in the papyrus 
by numbers of men and women w^ho have 
sprung from no one knows where. 

Every one seems to talk at the same time, 
and there is a babel of language, for there 
are porters from Masaba, Uganda, and Usoga, 
whilst the boat people speak a dialect quite 
their own. Each one knows better than the 
other how^ to induce a mule to enter a canoe, 
and the result is chaos with good promise of 
disaster ; but at last every thing and being has 
found boat-room, and some of the canoes have 
already disappeared down what looks a long 



244 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

lane, but is really the ferry cut by the natives 
through the papyrus from bank to bank of the 
river. 

The traveller has no doubt settled himself to 
utilise the forty minutes crossing by thinking 
of the wonders of Africa and wonderful ways 
of the African. He has been intensely interested 
in the canoes, the men and women, some of the 
latter with babies hanging on to them as they 
paddle and chant their way across the stream ; 
and he has also been interested in the way the 
men jeopardised their lives in fighting for a 
place in the canoes. How true these porters 
are to their charge ! And he begins with 
admiration to study the faces of the men in 
his canoe. 

He is encouraged in his study by a smile 
which greets him from the end of the boat ; 
but that same smile quickens him into mental 
and physical activity more eifectually than the 
myriad mosquitoes that have left their resting- 
places in the papyrus to claim blood-relationship 
with the new white man, for by a lightning 
process of deduction he concludes that since 
that smile belongs to the mule-boy then the 
mule has been sent on alone to be pulled and 
mauled, and perhaps lamed, on the opposite 
bank by the men who do not understand it. 

He looks round and recognises men who 




HOUSE BUILT ON THE RIVER MPOLOGOMA. 



Weird and Wonderful Houses 247 

ought to be with their loads in other boats, 
and fails to recognise the men who so carefully 
deposited loads that as far as possible always 
travel with the European. The loads indeed 
are near, but will have to wait half an hour 
on the bank-side before the porters told off 
to carry them arrive. 

The traveller soon realises, if he has not 
already done so, the philosophy of the Baswa- 
hili " Pole, pole " (" Slowly, slowly ") ; and of the 
Luganda proverb, " Akwata mpola atuka wala " 
(" He who goes slowly reaches far ") ; and having 
comforted himself with the thought that he 
will arrive some tiTne, he settles down — as well 
as the mosquitoes will allow him^to pass the 
time profitably. 

This at any rate was my experience ; and 
having heard a rumour to the effect that the 
people lived in the papyrus, I got the rowers 
to take me out of the usual route to see the 
chief of these men and women of the river. 

The canoe was made to wind in and out 
among the high-growing reeds ; and then with 
a sudden push through what seemed an im- 
possible barrier, we were amazed and delighted 
to find ourselves floating in a clear expanse 
of water, at the far side of which stood, as if 
also resting on it, a large-sized, comfortable- 
looking native house, out of which a dog came 

13 



2^S Uganda to Mount Elgon 

to bark at us, whilst the children, affrighted 
at the sudden appearance of a white man, 
stood at a safe distance within the doorway 
and gaped. 

No island or mud-bank near, it seemed 
inconceivable that any house could be in the 
vicinity ; yet here was one, and I afterwards 
found many more. 

The natives explained to me that in years 
gone by there was no security in the countries 
bordering this great river. Their forefathers 
were constantly raided, and were eventually 
forced to seek shelter in the marshes and rivers. 

Some ingenious man found that by cutting 
the papyrus level with the water, and then 
sewing the stems together, he was able to 
make a substantial and safe surface upon 
which it was possible to build a house safe 
from the land robbers, and from which terms 
could be dictated to those who wished to cross 
from one side of the river to the other. 

Quite a strong community of these river 
dwellers is to be found on the Mpologoma ; 
and whilst it is marvellous how they have 
withstood the mosquito pest, it is most pitiful 
to know that the sleeping-sickness fly has 
reached their dwelling-place, and most of them 
are probably doomed to die of this awful 
plague. 



Lake Kyoga 249 

It was a pleasure to go in and out among 
these people whenever I was at the Mpologoma ; 
and through the kindness of a Muganda chief 
I had a little church erected near the river 
to which some of them came to read, hear, and 
learn of the love and peace of God. 

The river is known by different names in 
different parts of the country, but I have 
carefully traced it from Mount Elgon, and 
have given it on the map on pp. 220-221. 

Having crossed it on the road running directly 
east from the Nile and Iganga, we have a 
journey of some forty miles to travel before 
coming to our Masaba Mission station situate 
on the foothills of Mount Elgon ; and since the 
intervening country is somewhat uninteresting 
it will not be amiss to retrace our steps and 
take the reader north from Iganga across 
Lake Kyoga, formed no doubt to a great 
extent by the river Mpologoma ; at any rate 
fed by the Nile, Mpologoma, and connections 
from Lake Salisbury, which acts as a reservoir 
for much water from Mounts Elgon, Dabasian 
(Kokolyo), and Teso. 

It seems to me that when dealing with the 
Nile supply too little notice has hitherto been 
taken of the water pouring into Kyoga from 
these mountains. 

Great floating islands of papyrus are a 



250 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

feature of Lake Kyoga, for the rush of the 
rivers Mpologoma, Naigombwa, Abuketi, and 
Agu seems to prevent any thick growth in the 
water, which is here quite expansive. 

The crossing is quite a spicy experience, 
especially when the headman of the canoes, 
in order to extract a compliment, informs one 
that the canoe in which we are sitting turned 
turtle on the journey from the other side, and 
was only saved by the skill with which he and 
his fellows got it and themselves alongside a 
floating island. 

In fear and trembling our porters land on the 
shores of Bukedi, as they call it, but really in 
Serere, a district of Teso, a large country 
stretching from Lake Kyoga to Lake Rudolph, 
and occupied by a Nilotic tribe of people. 

We are, indeed, in a strange land : houses, 
people, language, cultivation, all differ from 
anything met with elsewhere in the Uganda 
Protectorate, south of Acholi country, and 
even the white man can sympathise with the 
nervousness of his porters. 

Remarkably tall men absolutely naked, and 
women with bead and iron belts from which 
hangs a fringe behind and in front go stalking 
past ; and large companies can be seen at 
work preparing the ground for the sowing of 
millet, the chief item of food. So there are 



Teso Country and People 251 

certain evidences of a large population, but 
not a house can be seen until some friendly 
native escorts us behind the thick screens 
and defences formed by the cactus plant, and 
there in peace, safety, and comfort is seen the 
patriarchal family with all they require. 

As an additional defence the doorways of the 
houses are often made so remarkably low that 
people and cattle are obliged to kneel to enter. 
This custom has developed a condition of chronic 
white swelling, or housemaid's knee, among 
many of the men, women, and cattle ; and it 
is a most peculiar sight to see people and 
cattle walking about with a great swelling on 
each knee. 

Polygamy is the usual custom of the people 
in these regions, and the favourite wife can 
generally be distinguished by some special 
mark of favour. In one group I photographed 
the chief's favourite was wearing an iron chain 
apron, and was looked upon as a great swell. 

The rest of the ladies in the group had 
vied with each other as to how many rings 
they could wear in nose, ears, lips, and tongue, 
and one young girl seemed very proud of the 
fact that she had five rings in her tongue, 
which she shyly kept out whilst I was taking 
the photograph. 

The men are equally fond of such adornments 



252 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

to ears, nose, and lips ; and further north they 
enhance their " beauty " by allowing their 
hair to grow, and then working into it thick 
potter's clay, which looks and feels almost 
like an unnatural growth. Into this clay 
they stick ostrich feathers, which add consider- 
ably to their already great height and striking 
appearance. 

Nowhere else in Africa have I seen the care 
bestowed upon infants which is to be met with 
in Teso country ; and one picture explains what 
I mean. The tall mother has been on a journey, 
and her infant is resting in a very nicely made 
skin sling on her back. To protect the child's 
head from the sun a gourd has been prepared, 
and can be seen in the picture hanging from 
the mother's neck and covering the baby's 
head. 

The pictures of a Teso house and grain store 
will enable the reader to understand how 
careful these seemingly wild people are to 
make provision for the future. 

Care is taken to protect the unmarried girls 
by making it compulsory for all young un- 
married men of a family or village to sleep 
together in a hut set apart from the rest ; and 
it is said that after these youths have retired 
the elders prepare the ground in such a way 
that trespassers are easily traced. This, how- 




TESO HOUSE A\D GKAIX STORE. 




GRAIN STORE IN' THE TESO COUNTRY. 



Power of a Mother-in-law 255 

ever, is only done when flagrant advantage has 
been taken of the custom of the country for 
girls not to refuse when solicited. 

When being taken round one of the villages 
by its chief, I was interested and amused at 
seeing a practical illustration of the awe with 
which a mother-in-law can inspire her daughter's 
husband. / 

The man was describing to me how that he 
was the head of his village, that men and 
women helped to till the ground and gather 
the grain ; that sweet potatoes and bananas are 
also cultivated, but the bananas are not eaten 
for food but used for making drink. 

He explained the necessity for guarding 
themselves with the strong cactus fence against 
the Kimam or Kimaraa people to the north — a 
people of less striking physique than the Teso, 
Koromojo, and Turkana tribes, but much more 
formidable fighters ; and when in the middle 
of his explanation he suddenly stopped, gripped 
me by the arm and led me off at a rapid 
pace in the opposite direction. I was certain 
then some of the enemy had appeared. At the 
gate, however, he stopped in his flight and went 
on with the conversation as if nothing had 
happened. 

Naturally I was inquisitive, and pressed him 
for an explanation, when he pointed in the 



256 Uganda to Mount Elgon * 

direction from which we had come and uttered 
the words " Mother-in-law." I chaffingly sug- 
gested that his description of things could not 
be correct, for he had told me that he was 
head of the village, and here he was afraid 
of his mother-in-law. He smiled, somewhat 
grimly I thought, but would not be persuaded 
to return by the same route. The lady was 
on the outlook for us, and at the same time 
anxiously endeavouring to protect herself from 
the shame of being gazed upon by her daughter's 
husband. A curious custom no doubt, yet one 
perhaps which makes for peace. 

For the past five years Baganda teachers 
have been working amongst these people with 
encouraging results. Archdeacon Buckley and 
I have baptized young men from Miro and 
Bululu, on the shores of Kyoga, and have 
found them bright and intelligent ; and two 
years ago some Teso lads from Kumi, near 
Lake Salisbury, were baptized by a Muganda 
clergyman whom I had placed there. 

One of these lads came to live with me and 
teach me his language, but sickness intervened 
and I was invalided to Europe. 

Since then the C.M.S. have appointed a 
European and his wife to live at Ngora, the 
centre of this Southern Teso district, with a 
million of people, where the first white woman 




257 



Lake Salisbury 259 

the natives had ever seen — Mrs. Crabtree — was 
the wonder of the age ; and where the present 
lady, if not driven out by malaria, will prove 
a tremendous influence for good. The perfect 
friendliness of the people at Ngora may be 
gathered from the fact that many were daring 
enough to brave the unknown powers of the 
camera. 

Near by is Lake Salisbury, known to the 
natives as " Bisina," a not very beautiful or 
expansive sheet of water except in the rainy 
season when much of the surrounding land 
is inundated. 

I was able to trace the distinct double 
connection between Lakes Salisbury and 
Kyoga formed by the rivers, or arms, Agu 
and Abuketi, marked on the map on pp. 
220-221. 

Fishermen and hippopotami hunters from 
Nsoga paddle up one or other of these arms 
into Salisbury. 

Lakes Salisbury and Gedge are really one 
sheet of water in the rainy season. 

From the shores of Lake Salisbury we got 
a glimpse of Mount Debasian, called Kokolyo 
by the natives, rising some twenty miles 
away to the westward like three huge jagged 
teeth. 

Through the glass its cliffs and precipices 



26o Uganda to Mount Elgon 

look inaccessible ; yet perched on the very 
top of them are the dwellings of a people 
whose language and habits differ considerably 
from those of surrounding tribes. 

This people, sometimes called Tegetha and 
Tepeth, are to be met with again on Mount 
Moroto, near Manimani, in the north ; and 
since they are undoubtedly of Bantu stock, 
their presence so far north, and surrounded 
as they are by powerful Nilotic peoples by 
whom they are respected, is a striking pheno- 
menon. I have often longed to visit them, 
and hope the opportunity to do so may come ; 
but at present must content myself with the 
interesting question as to whether or not 
they are remnants of a great Galla invasion 
which passed over the Lake Rudolph district 
down to the south and south-west as far as 
the Ruwenzori Mountains and Lake Albert. 

Away in the north, between Lakes Salisbury 
and Rudolph, dwell the powerful Koromojo 
and Turkana clans, blood relations of the Masai, 
closely allied in customs and manners to the 
Suk people of Lake Baringo district, and akin 
in language to the Teso people among whom we 
are now travelling. 

Like the Teso, the Koromojo and Turkana 
men eschew clothing of any kind. They are 
big, strong, brave fellows, renowned as fighters, 



Turkana Warriors 261 

but vainer than the most frivolous woman 
with regard to trinkets and style of hair- 
dressing. A Turkana warrior is a sight to be 
remembered, with his long hair thickly inter- 
twined and hanging from his head exactly like 
a very thick, black doormat with the corners 
rounded off. 

Where the hair is not long and thick enough 
to form of itself a sufficiently prominent head- 
dress, it is encaked with potter's clay in which 
ostrich feathers, red berries, and pieces of reed 
are stuck, giving to the wearer a really terrible 
appearance. 

The difficulty of sleeping with such a 
permanent head-dress is overcome by the use 
of a small wooden pillow, made with two 
prongs to stick in the ground, and the top 
carved to receive the neck of the sleeper. In 
the daytime it is carried on the arm of the 
owner by a thong of rough hide, and is always 
conveniently near when a seat is required. 

For many years past Koromojo, Turkana, 
and Dobosa, or Toposa, have been open to the 
trader and ivory hunter, and indeed one might 
truthfully say have been under the supremacy 
of the ivory hunter — settlements of Arabs, 
Swahilis, and Baloochis. Now and then the 
depredations of these rascals have been 
suddenly ended by the swoop of a marauding 



262 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

party of Abyssinians, but from either party 
the natives suffered grievously and still suffer, 
for there is no attempt to administer what is 
a fine and promising district. 

Life in some parts of Koromojo and Turkana 
will always be somewhat difficult, especially 
in the hot season when water is scarce and 
sometimes disappears altogether ; so that milk 
and blood have to be depended upon by human 
beings, and the wants of the cattle supplied 
from any underground accumulations of water 
that may be found by digging. 

At present ivory is the chief export from 
these districts, and some idea of the number 
of elephants to be met with may be gathered 
from the rich haul represented by the accom- 
panying picture. 

There seems no difficulty in persuading men 
to undertake hardships for the purpose of gain 
— one young fellow is said to have cleared 
£8,000 profit in about nine months ; but how few 
men there are — at the present moment none — 
willing to answer the call of this vast district, 
to use the present grand opportunity, before the 
Swahili traders have forced Mohammedanism 
upon the natives, and before the evils of civilisa- 
tion have ruined them, to go in and win the 
whole district for Christ ! 

What a glorious work might be done at 




263 



An Invitation from Abyssinia 265 

Manimani by a few earnest and practical young 
fellows — a clergyman, a doctor, and a couple 
of laymen ! 

Even Abyssinia recognises the opportunity, 
for not two years ago five Abyssinians travelled 
down from their own country through these 
districts to my station on Mount Elgon, and 
begged me to go back with them and see the 
many peoples by the way in need of a mis- 
sionary. Pour of these men claimed to be 
Christians, a remnant of the old Coptic Church 
— in this instance an example to more enlight- 
ened professors of the Christian religion. 

I was too ill to move far from my own 
station, and in any case the work at Mount 
Elgon had the prior claim, but I hope the 
time is not far distant when men from England 
will be forthcoming to take up such a challenge 
as these Abyssinians gave. 

At present we must turn our backs on the 
north and continue our journey southwards 
towards the great black mass we know to be 
Mount Elgon. 



CHAPTER XIII 

MASABA: COUNTRY, PEOPLE, AND 
CUSTOMS 

A cool camp — The largest extinct volcano in the world — Mount 
Elgon and its foothills — Masaba — Primitive customs — 
Caves and cave-dwellers — The wildest people in Uganda 
Protectorate — Native customs — Circumcision — Patriarchal 
government — Clan system — Land laws — Heirship — 
Marriage laws and customs — Dress of married women — 
Clan marks — Ornaments — Protection of girls — Punishment 
of wrong-doers — Clan fights — Native courtesy — Spirit of 
independence — Jealousy — A father's curse — Curious 
customs. 

IN the middle of the hottest season it 
is possible to sleep comfortably at our 
last camp, Nabowa, or Napowa, for the cold 
winds from the largest volcano in the world 
have been blowing over us, and we rise 
refreshed to see a sight interesting and 
pleasing. 

Right in front of us, apparently quite near, 
rises the extinct volcano known — no one knows 

366 



Masaba 267 

why — as Mount Elgon. Its foothills stretch 
away vast distances to right and left, and 
appear on the north to join the peculiarly 
shaped mountain Debasian, or Kokolyo. 

As a matter of fact the crater of Elgon 
must be some thirty miles from Nabowa, but 
at a distance of fourteen miles there rises 
abruptly a hilly plateau some 7,500 feet above 
sea-level, and this with a cloud hanging over 
its top at first sight appears joined to the 
crater. 

All the hill region is known as Masaba, and 
until the last few years it has been quite 
cut off from the outside world. 

There, on the hill in front of us, are men 
who offer sacrifices as in the days of Cain and 
Abel, and procure fire for the purpose prob- 
ably in the very same way as those ancients 
by the rubbing of sticks. 

On this western side are to be seen caves, 
which, though now only used as hiding-places 
in times of danger, were undoubtedly at no 
distant date the usual dwelling-places of the 
Bagishu. 

Away to the south-east of Elgon the caves 
are still in use, though the bolder spirits are 
beginning to build in the open. 

I have not the least doubt that the caves 
are originally natural, but have been enlarged 



268 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

to meet the needs of growing families and 
herds. 

A belt of " Kalungu," that is, uninhabited 
land, almost surrounds Masaba, and gives the 
country an uninviting appearance ; but no 
sooner has this been crossed than Masaba is 
seen to be a land of plenty, beauty, and, 
because of its primitive simplicity, a land of 
wonder. 

The long elephant-grass of Uganda and 
Usoga is absent, and as far as the eye can 
reach almost every foot of ground seems 
to be under cultivation, whilst innumer- 
able clusters of houses are visible in every 
valley and on what appear to be inaccessible 
hills. 

We left the last Government post more than 
twenty miles west of Masaba, but nowhere else 
in Africa did I receive a more hearty welcome 
or meet with a more kindly disposed people 
than in this country, where the people were 
living as they had lived right along from the 
past ages, and are described by the late Com- 
missioner of Uganda, Sir H. H. Johnston, as 
"perhaps the wildest people to be found any- 
where within the limits of the Uganda Protec- 
torate. They are wilder even than the Congo 
dwarfs." 

Such a character almost appalled one, but 




AN OLD MASABA PATRIARCH. 
269 



Primitive People and Customs 271 

four years of life among them proved them 
not only very kindly but very capable of 
development. 

A primitive, pastoral, Bantu-speaking people, 
they are known as Bamasaba or Bagishu, but 
distinguish themselves as a race apart from 
others by the name Basani, i.e., men, whilst 
all men of uncircumcised nations are called 
Basindi, i.e., boys. 

There is an annual festival of circumcision, 
when all youths who wish to be recognised as 
full members of the clan, warriors, and men 
to be reckoned with, parade, dressed in war 
dress, and march from village to village to 
make public their brave decision. 

They are feted by young and old for days 
before the actual operation, and they visit the 
sacred grove of the clan, and, having made 
their offerings, receive through their witch- 
doctor the blessing of the spirits. 

The final operation is carried out by adepts, 
who receive a fowl from each lad. 

This operation is performed in public, not in 
one centre, but in various places situate as 
near as possible to the homes of the young 
men concerned. 

Each patient has to stand forward, grasp a 
young sapling with both hands, and stand 
without flinching whilst the foreskin is cut 

14 



2 72 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

away. On the least show of cowardice the 
patient is fiercely beaten with sticks by the 
onlookers, but at the close of the operaton is 
treated with great care and consideration 
until better. 

A house is set apart for the young men 
sujffering, and they are carefully tended night 
and day until better. 

As a rule, the youths are nude until cir- 
cumcision, after which they wear a skin apron. 

The form of government has only reached the 
patriarchal stage ; and this explains the reason 
for the independent village life found in Masaba. 
Ten, twenty, thirty, and as many as a hundred 
houses are clustered together, sometimes forti- 
fied with a strong mud wall and deep trench ; 
and in these dwell the wives, sons, grandchildren, 
and other relations of the chief man, who is the 
old patriarchal head or son chosen to succeed 
him. 

The old patriarchs long ago took clan names, 
and instituted the clan system whereby the land 
of the country was fairly apportioned and settled 
on a satisfactory basis. 

Each clan owns a definitely marked strip of 
land running towards the principal mountain 
heights. 

Each adult male individual of a clan can 
claim a piece of this strip. No land is ex- 



Native Land Laws 273 

changed, but any individual may sell his 
land, and often does sell a portion of it. No 
chief may interfere, for the Masaba chiefs 
are not chiefs in the feudal sense and do 
not own the land more than any other house- 
holder. Each male has an independent right 
over his own land, and no chief can turn 
him away, as is the case under the feudal 
system. 

The land is hereditable, and on the death 
of the father, if married sons only remain, 
they share alike. If married sons and young 
children are left, the eldest son takes charge 
on behalf of the young male children. He 
and the other married sons may share the 
cattle with the children, but the land is kept 
for the children. 

If there is more than one wife, and each 
wife has children, the male children fall 
heirs to the land cultivated by their own 
mother. 

If there be only one wife, with issue of sons, 
the sons divide the estate. 

The heir to the chieftainship — ^■.e., repre- 
sentative of the family — is elected by the 
male relatives of the deceased, and is always 
a son. 

A person may change his clan to enter the 
clan of his mother, and he may succeed to 



2 74 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

land in both the clan of his father and of his 
mother. 

Members of the same clan do not intermarry. 

The clan feeling is very strong, and each 
individual is intensely loyal to the call of the 
clan in time of need. An insult offered to the 
humblest individual is offered to, and will be 
resented by, the whole clan. Consequently 
the clans are often at variance. Their petty 
jealousies prevent any cordial co-operation 
or amalgamation, even in time of direst 
necessity, and this makes missionary and 
probably any other kind of work among them 
very difficult. 

There is little doubt, however, but that this 
condition of the people has been of some 
assistance to the Government, for such a thing 
as organised opposition is quite out of the 
question. 

The strongest patriarch, or chief, is the man 
who has been able to procure the most cattle, 
and with them buy the largest number of 
wives, for each of which he would have to 
pay from two to ten head of cattle, according 
to age and condition. 

The suitor for a lady's hand approaches 
the girl's father and discusses the price 
of his choice in cattle. These negotiations 
often last a considerable time, until at last 



Marriage Customs 275 

the bargain is struck and the cattle paid 
over. 

For the space of three months not a sign 
is given that the arrangement is complete ; 
the woman is still in her father's house, and 
things go on as usual in the house of her 
suitor. 

At the end of this time the lady's father 
kills a goat, and friends — except the prospec- 
tive bridegroom and his clan — and relations 
are invited to partake of a feast at his house, 
after which a procession is formed, composed 
of the bride-elect, escorted by thirty unmarried 
girls of her acquaintance, the foremost of 
whom carries the head and skin of the goat 
which formed an important item in the recent 
feast. 

Before and behind these females march young 
men, decked out, like the girls, in all the glory 
of beads and iron wire. 

Behind all come some men, related to the 
bridegroom, carrying earthenware pots full of 
strong drink made from grain. The more 
common drink made from bananas is not used 
on these occasions. 

On arrival at the house of the bridegroom 
a mimic war takes place, to convey the 
idea that the two clans are fighting for the 
lady. 



276 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

If the bridegroom-elect is still uncircumcised 
the bride and her retinue stay for two days to 
cultivate whatever plantain garden the gentle- 
man owns. 

If, however, the bridegroom-elect is, from 
the Bagishu point of view^, a man, they stay 
three days, eating, drinking, working, and 
playing. 

Anything of an unseemly nature is strictly 
taboo ; and as the man and woman most closely 
concerned are not yet married, they stay apart 
from each other. 

At the end of the second or third day the 
bride-elect returns with her retinue to her 
father's house and there remains for one or 
two months, after which another goat and 
fowls are killed, plantains cooked, strong drink 
brewed, and every preparation made for a great 
feast. 

Married men are sent by the bridegroom with 
jars for the drink and baskets for the food. 
The procession is once more formed, this time 
without the young men, and the lady is brought 
to her husband. 

Friends and neighbours and all who will from 
far and near, except the father and mother of 
the bride, assemble to eat the marriage feast, 
at the close of which the bride, now arrayed 
in the symbolic dress of a married woman, is 



Dress of Married Women 277 

escorted by the bridegroom to her future home. 
A house and grain store are provided for each 
wife, and as a rule the women settle down 
after marriage to a quiet, loyal, and fairly in- 
dustrious life, cultivating, cooking, bringing 
firewood and water, counting and restringing 
her beads. 

The distinctive dress of a married woman is 
a fringe of light-coloured string, made from 
plantain fibre, tied round the waist at the back, 
then gathered together, passed between the legs, 
and tied to the string in front. 

There is also a small black string fringe, 
without which no well-bred woman will ap- 
proach her husband to serve food or even be 
without in a man's presence. 

There is no distinctive dress for the younger 
women, but they are strictly careful to wear a 
piece of cloth or leaf or plant. 

When the young men are considered old 
enough to marry, and become full members of 
their clan — z.e., at from sixteen to eighteen 
years of age — they are circumcised ; and the 
young women, on attaining the age of from 
fourteen to sixteen years, are marked on the 
abdomen and forehead with the tribal marks, 
cut after having been perforated by some old 
lady of the clan. 

Sometimes the wounds fester and form one 



278 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

large keloid which looks very like a doormat 
tied to the abdomen. 

It is also customary for the women to per- 
forate the lower lip and gradually enlarge the 
hole until they are able to wear, comfortably, 
I suppose, a piece of wood half an inch in 
diameter or — the height of ambition — a large 
piece of white quartz two or three inches long. 

Both men and women are fond of orna- 
mentation. They wear beads of every kind, 
shape, and colour, and whatever coloured bead 
is the fashion becomes the currency for the 
time being. Necklets, bracelets, and anklets of 
iron and brass, some of them exceedingly heavy, 
are greatly sought after ; waistbands, too, of 
ostrich eggshell, cowrie shells, and iron are 
very popular, and hippo teeth, rams' horns, leg 
bells, shell and monkey-skin hats are worn to 
add dignity to festive occasions and to inspire 
awe in time of war. 

At the age of about ten years both boys and 
girls leave the house of their parents and take 
up their quarters in houses provided for them, 
girls in one house, boys in another. 

I have already referred to the care taken by 
the non-Bantu people in Teso to ensure the safe 
keeping of their girls at night-time. The people 
of Masaba are not so particular; there are 
certain penalties attached to wrongdoing, and 




MUGISHU WOMAN WEARING LIP STONE. 
2/9 



The Protection of Girls 281 

if the young people are foolish enough to brave 
them they cannot complain of the punish- 
ment. 

A father who has been given cause for 
suspicion will hide himself in the grass near 
the house of his daughter and wait night after 
night until he knows for certain whether his 
confidence has been betrayed. 

Woe betide the guilty youth ! The whole 
village is aroused, and the elders, with all the 
male relatives of the girl, fall on him with sticks 
and beat him until he wishes he had never been 
born. 

And here let me state a fact, hardly com- 
prehensible to Western minds : in nearly every 
case of solicitation the girl is the culprit. 

When without a marriage according to native 
custom a child is expected, the girl is severely 
punished by her father or brothers ; indeed, 
their anger often leads them to the length of 
spearing her, after which they will bring her 
to the European to be doctored. 

There is no idea of shame in the question, 
but the marketable value of a girl drops on 
account of her condition, and instead of the 
marriage allowance being from four to ten 
head of cattle her relatives can only get from 
two to four. 

There seems no great difficulty in finding a 



282 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

husband for such a girl, and I have not the least 
doubt but that the reduced price tempts suitors. 

The child, which to the native mind is illegiti- 
mate, goes with the mother and becomes the 
property of the husband. 

It might have been supposed that in the 
event of the child being a girl a larger number 
of cattle would be demanded and gladly paid ; 
but no, the woman and her child go for the 
smallest possible price without a sign of festivity 
or joy ; and we may take it for granted that 
the voice of the nation has settled this and 
other unwritten laws for the social welfare of 
the whole community. 

Much of the trouble between clan and clan is 
caused by unsatisfactory marriages. It is an 
understood thing that if a wife leaves her 
husband and returns to her father without 
halving borne a child, the marriage is dissolved 
by the father returning to the husband all the 
cattle. 

If a child has been born the cattle are returned 
less one killed to give a feast to the wife's friends 
and relations. But if there are a number of 
children the cattle are not returned. 

It is undoubtedly difficult to get any African 
to return cattle that have been in his possession, 
and the above marriage laws often lead to 
squabbles and even serious feuds because a wife 











2»4 



Clan Fights 285 

has left her husband to return to her old home, 
and her father is too strong for the husband, 
who dare not even go near to claim his own. 

As a rule the wrongdoers and the wronged 
person are supported by their respective clans, 
and this sometimes leads to a regular battle, 
such as I have witnessed more than once. 

The men of each clan arm with spears, knives, 
sticks, bows and arrows, and meet for battle on 
the boundary. 

Charge after charge is made, heads cracked, 
and spear-wounds given, and it may be a 
man on each side killed ; but this does not 
often happen, except in a drunken brawl. 

As a rule the clan fights are carried out 
with the utmost good-humour, and when 
either side is tired; the others are quite 
willing to stop fighting until their opponents 
feel refreshed ; they would not think of 
taking a mean advantage under such cir- 
cumstances. 

If a man is speared, his friends are allowed 
to carry him off the field, and unless there 
is bitter hatred between the clans the fight 
is not continued on that day. 

No clan would dream of molesting a woman 
belonging to the opposing force. She might 
with perfect safety walk between the com- 
batants, and is even allowed to pass in 



2 86 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

safety through the enemy's territory, taking 
her husband's goats or other possessions to 
some place of safety. 

Indeed, considering the conditions of life 
in Masaba, it is a wonderful fact that women 
are very much respected. They hold a much 
higher position in the country than was the 
case only a few years ago in Uganda, and 
is to-day in Usoga and other countries in 
the Lake district. The Masaba women do 
not rank with the goods and chattels, but 
receive respect in youth and honour in old age. 

The spirit of independence has been mark- 
edly developed in the people, no doubt owing 
to the fact that the nation is not organised 
under one head, and the consequent necessity 
for each person to look after himself or 
herself. A child will defend with its life its 
own small property, perhaps a single fowl, 
and dare its father to use it for himself. A 
wife will deeply resent any claim of owner- 
ship over her made by her husband, yet will 
be strictly loyal to hitai until he begins to 
neglect her claims and rights. 

It is sometimes necessary for the husband 
to assert himself in a manner painful yet 
salutary to his wife ; but when the woman 
has been in the right, and has taken steps 
to defend herself, her methods are usually 




288 



Maintaining Women's Rights 289 

so drastic that an operation or funeral is 
necessary to the husband. 

Such cases I have had brought to my 
notice, and must confess that in one such I 
found it quite difficult to impress the lady 
with the wrongness of sticking a knife into 
her husband's back, within an inch of his 
spine, for she was quite convinced that he 
deserved it, and had an idea that I thought 
so too. She promised, however, not to do it 
again, and gladly left her husband in my care 
until cured. 

The system of polygamy is not responsible 
for the amount of domestic trouble it is 
generally supposed to engender. Each wife 
has her own house, the framework of which 
is built by the man and his friends, whilst 
the lady and her friends carefully mud the 
walls and beat the floor. Outside this house 
are one or two grain stores, where the lady 
stores up the last grain harvest as a safe- 
guard against a prolonged dry season when 
the banana supply gives out. 

Sometimes, however, a spirit of jealousy 
creeps in between wives, and then nothing 
goes right. Each wife is on the watch for 
any act of the husband that can be construed 
as favouritism, and the slighted one begins to 
plan revenge. 



290 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

In one case the husband was made to 
suffer, when, after a day's outing at some 
drinking party, he returned and demanded 
admittance to the house of his slighted wife. 
They quarrelled as to who should open the 
door, they fought when he got inside, and 
when, overcome with drink, he sat down 
dozing at the fire, the woman was so carried 
away by her mad passion that she crept up 
behind and killed him there with his own 
axe. 

In another case, the two women came to 
extremes after bickering and insulting each 
other for weeks. The favourite wife invited 
the other to fight the matter out fairly 
before witnesses, but the witnesses happened 
to sympathise with the other wife ; con- 
sequently they held the favourite whilst the 
second wife tried to cut her head off with 
a large knife. The woman was terribly cut, 
but she got off and raised her clan, who first 
of all sought the weak husband and mur- 
derous wife before bringing the injured woman 
to be attended to at our dispensary. 

Although the spirit of independence is so 
marked, even in the young, there is no lack 
of parental authority. This is no doubt due 
to the power of a father's curse. The word 
"Kutsuba" is dreaded, for to "Kutsuba," or 



The Power of a Curse 291 

curse, one's child is the severest punishment 
a father can bestow. The son so dealt with 
becomes a wanderer, not because his father 
has cast him out, but because he believes in 
the power of the curse, and by the action of 
his own mind brings upon himself what his 
father's words would have been totally incapable 
of — utter destitution of health and wealth. 

He roams from place to place, unable to 
fix his attention for long upon anything. He 
takes pleasure in nothing, and even when 
married he will leave his wife and all belong- 
ings and periodically disappear. 

This punishment is given to a son for gross 
impertinence to or for threatening a father ; 
and to a daughter for marrying without a 
marriage arrangement, i.e., before her father has 
received the usual number of cattle. 

In the daughter's case the punishment falls 
heavily upon her husband and herself, for 
she will either be childless or her children 
will die at or soon after birth. Case after 
case has been pointed out to me where my 
informants declared the curse had indeed 
had this effect, and one couple I know quite 
well have recently taken steps to have the 
curse removed after losing three children, one 
after the other. Such is the influence of mind 
over matter. 



292 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

The removal of the curse is effected by the 
son or daughter, as the case might be, bring- 
ing to the father a goat or sheep which is 
killed and eaten by the two most nearly 
concerned in the matter, and all their friends 
and relations. During the feast the father 
takes the contents of the animal's stomach 
and with them smears his son or daughter, 
who goes forth to show all the clan that the 
curse has been removed. 

Many of the Masaba customs, such as the 
one just mentioned, are exceedingly curious, 
and the people cannot give or suggest a 
reason for them. They have another, well 
worth mentioning, the meaning of which is, 
I think, quite conceivable to European minds. 

When two clans have been engaged in war, 
and each has tried in vain for the mastery, 
they decide to make a compact which no man 
or woman would dream of breaking. 

A dog is brought to the boundary and 
there cut in two, where so many fights have 
taken place. One half is placed on the land 
of one clan, and the other half on the land of 
the other clan, and the warriors of each clan 
march in procession between the two halves, 
which are then spurned by both parties. 

There is much hand-shaking and merriment, 
and from that time the clans are friendly. 



A Unique Compact 293 

There is little doubt but that the idea at 
the root of this custom is the wish that 
whoever breaks the compact miay have an 
end like the dog — disowned, cut in two, and 
spurned. 



15 



CHAPTER XIV 
LIFE AND WORK AMONGST CANNIBALS 

Lost near Mount Elgon — Quaint figures — Clothing despised — 
Invalid missionaries — A cheap house — Human hyaenas — 
The place of departed spirits — Burial customs — The 
gathering of the clans — The coming of Roman Catholics — 
Laying out a station — Native kindness — Progress — A 
unique church dedication — Variety of work — Healing 
powers of nature — First baptisms. 

IN September, 1903, my wife and I found 
ourselves hot, hungry, and very tired, 
strugghng through banana gardens in the 
country at the foot of Mount Elgon, and 
making for a hillock which seemed to be 
further away every time we caught a glimpse 
of it. 

Our porters had lost the way and we were 
alone, yet not as much alone as we could 
have wished, for almost at every step we 
took we had evidence of company that at 
the time was not much to our liking. 




"a tall impressive figure" near mount elgox. 

295 



A Trying Journey 297 

A tall, impressive figure, naked but for a 
dressed goat-skin, and armed with one or 
two spears, would stand and look at us, utter 
a few words that were unintelligible, and 
then disappear. Then a group of men and 
women with less clothing than we had ever 
conceived it possible for human beings to 
wear in public, forced their attentions upon 
us, but were unable to make us under- 
stand their welcome or direct us to our 
destination. 

A few more miles had been covered, and 
the hill we were making for seemed as far 
off as ever, when two youths, absolutely nude 
and armed with long sticks, introduced them- 
selves to us with loud laughter and much 
gesticulation. They made us understand that 
they would guide us to our destination, 
and we meekly followed at a much slower 
speed than they were evidently accustomed 
to ; but this no doubt gave them greater 
opportunity than they would otherwise have 
had of explaining to all onlookers who 
they thought we were, and how nearly we 
were related to them since they were our 
guides. 

They did not disappoint us, for after what 
seemed an interminable journey, we saw 
evidence of civilisation, and hurried with 



298 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

lighter hearts towards a distant umbrella. 
Imagine our disgust and disappointment to 
find that it covered an aspiring African 
escorted by a crowd of admirers, who were 
far more interested in this native parade than 
in the advent of two Europeans. 

A few yards, however, brought us to the 
euphorbia fence of what was to be our home, 
and there we met the two English mission- 
aries, the Rev. W. A. and Mrs. Crabtree, who, 
some time before, had come out from Uganda 
to have a holiday in this district, with the 
Uganda chief, Semei Kakungulu, and were so 
impressed with the needs and opportunities 
in this part of the world, that they did not 
go back to Uganda, but stayed on in Masaba, 
lived in the chief's house after he had left 
the place, made friends with the people, and 
generally prepared the way for us. 

I found them both broken in health, and 
speedily got porters together to take them 
to rail-head at Kisumu, a distance of a 
hundred miles. 

When Mr. Crabtree heard of our location 
to Masaba he got the natives to prepare 
quarters for us. A small, round hut which 
had served as a small-pox hospital was put 
in order for our boys, and a shed which had 
been erected to keep the sun off some 



A Cheap House 299 

visitor's tent was made into a house by the 
Masaba women filling in the sides and ends 
with wet mud. A hole was left to serve as 
window, and another as doorway, and these 
were covered at night-time, and when it 
rained — as the rainy season was on, it seemed 
to be always raining — by doors made of 
reeds. 

I have never yet dared to ask my wife 
what she thought when on that first evening 
I led her into that shed and told her we 
should have to live there for some little time. 
My own feelings were somewhat intense, 
for what I had treated as a joke when I 
heard that an application had been sent to 
headquarters for 1 rupee (Is. 4d.), the cost 
of my house, I now realised was grim 
reality. 

The walls were wet, the mud had not even 
begun to crack as a sign that it was drying ; 
the floor was considerably lower than the out- 
side earth, and a convenient ant-hill just out- 
side the door turned all the water into the 
house. I was — well, I had better not say what 
I was ! — and my feelings were not relieved when 
my wife complained of headache, and in spite 
of every precaution, eventually went down with 
a temperature of 103°. 

We removed her to the Crabtrees' house, a 



300 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

small mud and thatched affair, bequeathed to 
Mr. Crabtree by a native chief. 

Infested though it was with rats and snakes, 
and responsible no doubt for the ill-health of 
our predecessors, it was incomparably better 
than the wet shed outside. 

Our first care was to cut down the thick 
fence of euphorbia, which gave to the place 
the aspect of a fort. 

The Bamasaba were delighted to think that 
we were not afraid of them, and were willing 
for them to come about us at all hours. They 
wondered what would be the next move ; and 
I did not leave them long in doubt, for sus- 
picious smells had been troubling us until we 
could stand them no longer, and having decided 
to follow one up, I soon found out the reason 
of all the others ; the natives of Masaba do 
not as a rule bury their dead, and the long 
grass surrounding our house was a most 
convenient place in which to deposit the 
corpses. 

The condition of the atmosphere immediately 
near us before that long grass was removed may 
be faintly imagined, yet would have been 
infinitely worse but for the work of human 
hyaenas who leave very little for the four-legged 
animal. 

The custom of throwing out the dead is 




BAGISIIU MARKIEL) WO.MEX, 
301 



The Place of Departed Spirits 303 

universal among all the clans of Bagishu, 
except in the case of the youngest child or 
the old grandfather or grandmother, for whom, 
like the child, a prolonged life on earth is 
desired. 

As a general rule, it is believed that when 
the spirit leaves the body it goes to Makombe, 
the place of departed spirits, which is a very 
similar place to this earth, for there men meet 
all friends who have gone before, and come 
once more into possession, even if they have 
to fight for them, of all cattle that once be- 
longed to them, but had died or been killed. 

The hills of Makombe are beautiful, providing 
luxuriant and everlasting pasture, and death 
is quite unknown. It is sometimes said that 
Were (God) is the great ruling spirit of 
Makombe. 

When it is desired to perpetuate on the earth 
the life of some old man or woman, or that 
of some young baby, the corpse is buried inside 
the house or just under the eaves, until another 
child is born to the nearest relation of the 
corpse. This child, male or female, takes the 
name of the corpse, and the Bagishu firmly 
believe that the spirit of the dead has passed 
into this new child and lives again on earth. 
The remains are then dug up and thrown out 
into the open. 



304 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

The hysena is the chief scavenger of Masaba, 
and is sacred in the eyes of the people. It is 
not classified in the language as other animals, 
but has received a name which puts it on a 
level with persons. 

The work of clearing the ground for a mission 
station was a big task, but the people under- 
took it willingly when they realised that I 
meant to pay them for their work. Large 
crowds came each day, and if only they had 
really worked the whole place would have been 
cleared in a very short time. But different 
clans had to exchange compliments or epithets 
that were anything but complimentary, and it 
sometimes looked as if the mission station was 
about to be turned into common ground where 
long-standing clan disputes were to be settled 
by any and every means. 

Expostulation by a European who could hardly 
make himself understood went for very little, 
but a threat to give no pay — the currency was 
small white beads — for that day generally in- 
duced them to do a little work. 

On the whole the Bagishu worked regularly 
until a more serious interruption than usual 
took place, namely, the advent of the Roman 
Catholic Mission. They had built a small shed, 
a mile from our station, when the O.M.S. 
missionary Crabtree took up residence at 



A Roman Invasion 305 

Masaba, but they had never permanently oc- 
cupied it. Now, however, the bishop and 
two priests came to inaugurate a more per- 
manent settlement, one mile from my door, 
on the land of the same clan; and that 
although there was no other mission station 
for a hundred miles to the south, some 
hundreds of miles to the east, and thou- 
sands of miles to the north, all teeming with 
population. 

The priests had to do what they were told, 
but undoubtedly they realised as I did the 
sad pity of such a move, which tended to 
degrade the mission of Christ's professed 
disciples to the level of trade competition. 

There was much to try us, for the natives 
are cute enough to play one European off 
against another, if possible ; but we laid our- 
selves out to understand each other, and as 
a result became fast friends. 

In May, 1907, I journeyed from Masaba to 
Uganda. I had been down with a slight attack 
of blackwater fever early in the year, and got 
out of bed to make the journey. Ill and 
wretched, I called on the Roman Catholic priest, 
Father Kirk, at Budaka, and he would fain 
have had me stay with him until I felt better ; 
but I determined to push on, and was much 
touched and grateful when later in the day a 



3o6 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

messenger from Father Kirk came into my 
camp with some milk and a bottle of wine. 
I was not destined to see him again, but 
I wrote my thanks, and since coming to 
England have received a letter from the 
priests in "Bukedi," full of kindly sympathy 
at my being invalided and speaking much too 
generously of the work God enabled me to do 
in that land. 

I know, too, how grateful my wife is to 
Father Spere, of Masaba, for his kind sympathy 
and help when I lay ill in Uganda, and my 
fellow- worker, Mr. Holden, was enjoying (!) a 
temperature of 104° at Masaba. The Roman 
Catholic priests and the strongly Evangelical 
yet Catholic C.M.S. missionaries at Masaba, 
and I am certain in other parts of Africa, live 
and work happily together because they realise 
that the true issues of life do not depend on 
minor shibboleths. Without trespassing on 
private judgment and opinions, we learn to 
know and respect each other's work for some- 
thing like its true value. 

Eventually a large clearing was made, roads 
laid out, and a mission station planned which 
would contain a church, schools, dispensaiy, 
teachers' houses, house for boarders, house 
for European in charge of district with ac- 
commodation for visitors, house for Euro- 




307 



True Gentility 309 

pean ladies, and house for second European 
man. 

All this entailed a feature quite novel to 
the life and custom of Masaba — persistent, con- 
secutive work ; and I was repeatedly warned 
that to try and get the clans to work to- 
gether was to attempt the impossible. How- 
ever, I attempted it with the most gratifying 
results, for as soon as they realised that I 
was not there to force them to work, and 
would pay them for their labour, hundreds 
came with poles and wattles, fibre for thatch- 
ing, to stamp mud for walls, to carry stones 
for foundations, to build a house in the hills, 
to go with me on the march whenever neces- 
sary ; and when the first brick house was 
built, some three hundred Bagishu went to 
Jinja, a distance of a hundred miles, with a 
native headman, and brought the corrugated 
iron for the roof. 

All this time we were making friends with 
the people, and many evidences of friendship 
they gave us. I well remember how, on one 
occasion, when, because of a long drought, 
famine was sore in the land, and our native 
teachers and house-boys were wondering what 
they would eat, a native chief — head of his 
family — Wanyonyobolo by name, marched up 
to our house, followed by more than a hundred 



3IO Uganda to Mount Elgon 

people, each one carrying a small basket filled 
with peas and beans, which they had treasured 
up from the last harvest for such a time of 
need. 

This raw native, with true gentlemanly 
instincts, quietly asked a boy where they 
could deposit their present, and having 
been told, they took themselves off, without 
even so much as " how do you do ? " to the 
European. 

This kindness was repeated again and again 
by people who knew that I had made a rule 
to send away again with their gifts those who 
came with ulterior motives. 

It is said that the ulterior motive is never 
far from the African ; well, perhaps not, but 
the present condition of European social ameni- 
ties, such, for instance, as the close connection 
between a wedding invitation and a wedding 
present, or the quid pro quo now being 
demanded with loud-mouthed threats by the 
brewers from the bishops, prevent our throw- 
ing anything that might expose to attack our 
own glass houses. 

The Church Missionary Society sets its face 
dead against the " no blanketi no Hallelujah" 
type of Christian, and the Bagishu of Masaba 
did not come to us for what they could get. 

For some time we gathered a few people 



A Unique Congregation 311 

together daily in a small shed for instruction 
and worship, but this building was soon too 
small, and through the great kindness of our 
Bishop, Dr. Tucker, we erected a building to 
hold four hundred people. 

The day appointed for the formal opening 
of this building was wet, cold, and dreary ; 
but these wild, naked people crowded in from 
hill and dale, and must have presented a 
weird spectacle to their loving Bishop, who 
has always been much interested in Masaba, to 
the Venerable Archdeacon Walker, of Uganda, 
and to the Rev. T. R. Buckley, now Archdeacon 
of Usoga, who had cycled over to be with the 
Bishop and myself at the opening. 

The building is so arranged that the men 
use one door and the women another. Two 
men are appointed as churchwardens, and 
they regulate the incoming and outgoing of 
the people. All spears, knives, sticks, and 
pipes are given up at the door and returned 
at the close of the service. 

On the day of the opening the wardens 
refused to take responsibility for sticks, so 
great was the crowd, and I well remember the 
amazement of the Bishop at the pile of sticks 
outside the church door, and the wonderfully 
good-natured scramble for them at the close 
of the service. From that day a short ser- 



312 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

vice has been held each morning in the build- 
ing, and daily morning and afternoon school 
at which reading, writing, arithmetic, singing, 
and sewing has been taught. 

For nearly two years my wife and I were 
alone, but the demands of the school, dis- 
pensary, visiting, building, and language work 
became very heavy, and a European lady. 
Miss Pilgrim, a qualified nurse, sensible woman 
and true missionary, was sent to help us. 

It is almost if not wholly impossible for 
people at home to realise the variety of work 
one may be called upon to perform at such 
a station. Imagine a clergyman at home 
being called upon at the close of the morn- 
ing's service to perform an operation on a 
youth whose head had been terribly mauled 
by a leopard, summoned from lunch to 
amputate a finger, or hauled out of bed at 
night to stop a fight and dress the wounded ! 

The most interesting surgical cases are 
brought to one's notice in such a country, 
and I should like to mention one of special 
note. A man who joined with others in some 
attack was speared in the abdomen and carried 
home, presumably to die. After some days I 
was asked to visit him, and found that his 
bowel w^as pierced. I had him brought to the 
dispensary, where the wound was cleansed 




^- Tif^T^ J%ifc7_ 



A MUGISHU GIRL HARPIST. 



Natural Surgery 315 

from what appeared to be a filthy application 
of native herbs and cowdung ; the nurse also 
verified the diagnosis that the bowel was per- 
forated, and the man said he knew it was so, 
and was careful as to what he ate. The case 
was hopeless from our point of view, and we 
told him so, but expressed our willingness to 
do all we could for him. He expressed his 
gratitude, but said he would go on with the 
native medicine, and we were positively amazed 
to find that he got gradually better, and is now 
quite well. 

After seeing such a case, one is tempted to 
ask. Why is it that we Westerns have been 
civilised beyond such powers of natural healing? 

The dispensary and school work continued 
to grow, and two more missionaries were 
added to our staff — a lady from Australia, 
Miss McNamara, and Mr. Walter Holden, from 
England. 

My own time was now taken up with lan- 
guage work, building, and occasionally visiting 
other parts of my district. A temporary 
church, used also as a girls' school, a boys' 
school a house for teachers and boarders, a 
brick dispensary, a brick house with corru- 
gated iron roof for the missionary in charge, 
and a brick house for a second man were 
completed. A brick house for ladies was built 



3i6 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

to the top of the windows, a site prepared 
for the permanent brick church, a football 
ground cleared, and on Christmas Day, 1906, 
I had the unspeakable pleasure of baptizing 
the first Bagishu, and of receiving them into 
the visible Church of Christ. 



CHAPTER XV 
LANGUAGE DIFFICULTIES 

Preliminary difficulties — Publication of the Lumasaba Grammar 
— A primitive language — Legend about Victoria Nyanza 
Bantu group — Comparative study advised — Bantu language 
characteristics — Confusing similarity in Luganda — Perfect 
grammatical construction — Rich vocabulary — Hovi^ to 
express abstract ideas — A faithful lad — A prayer- and hymn- 
book — Idiomatic phrases — Politeness. 

THERE were many difficulties to contend 
with that at first sight seemed to me 
insurmountable, and the greatest of them was 
the language. 

Mr. Crabtree, a recognised linguist, was 
unable to help me as he would have desired, 
but he placed at my disposal what little he 
had done in Lugishu, and with this help I 
was content to go on until a lull in building 
operations, the advent of new missionaries, 
and my own ear told me I must go deeper 
into linguistic matters. 

16 317 



3i8 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

In the country of Uganda such a desire for 
knowledge has only to be expressed by the 
new-comer from Europe to receive every 
encouragement from the people. Careful, 
kindly, polite, and able, the Uganda man or 
woman will answer questions and guide one 
over pitfalls. How different in the country 
of Masaba ! Almost every question was 
answered by a look of amazement, as much 
as to say, " What in the world is he 
after ? " or a loud guffaw of laughter, as 
if they much enjoyed my endeavour to be 
funny. 

Yet they were not slow to protest most 
vigorously against the translations used. On 
one occasion an indignation meeting was held 
and a protest was sent to me against reading 
a certain word in church, and a plain intima- 
tion that if it continued the women would not 
attend. 

I called the people together, told them how 
anxious I was to use correct words, but unless 
they helped me by answering questions when- 
ever I asked for meanings, names, &c., I could 
not get on. 

From that time I had less difficulty, and 
worked continuously at the compilation of a 
dictionary and the general construction of the 
language. 



A Lumasaba Grammar 319 

Any one will understand something of the 
difficulties one had to contend with in trying 
to master the details of grammar in a 
language not hitherto reduced ; but every one 
conversant with the construction of Bantu 
languages wiU understand that since Luma- 
saba is a Bantu tongue, I had some general 
rules to go upon. 

I completed the Lumasaba Grammar in Holy 
Week, 1907, and at the end of the same year 
the work was published by that great Mis- 
sionary Society of the English Church known 
as the S.P.C.K. (Society for Promoting Chris- 
tian Knowledge). 

In the Introduction to that work I say, 
" There seems little doubt but that in the 
country of Masaba, i.e., the land on and near 
Mount Elgon, we have the most primitive 
language of what might well be called the 
Victoria Nyanza Bantu group." 

There is undoubtedly something more than 
legend in the story that long, long ago a 
vast body of people, probably Gallas,* led 
by two brothers, came from the east and 
settled for a time at Masaba. Here they 
discussed the direction of their further wan- 
derings, and it was finally decided to go off 
north-east. 

* A. H. Keane's " Ethnology," second edition. 



320 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

At Bugondo, a large hill in the Teso country, 
overlooking Lake Kyoga, and from which can 
be seen the countries of Usoga, Unyoro, and 
Uganda, there are pits pointed out from which 
the natives declare these early wanderers 
quarried the ore with which to provide iron 
for their weapons. 

After a stay at Bugondo it was agreed to 
separate. The elder brother, Lukidi, crossed 
Lake Kyoga and took possession of Unyoro, 
while Kintu crossed to Usoga, where he 
settled his nephew, and then went on to 
Uganda, where his name is still well known 
in connection with legends dealing with the 
beginning of things in that country. 

Probably large numbers of the Negroid 
natives of Masaba joined the Hamitic invaders 
and went off with them westward, whilst 
other Bantu Negroids are said to have gone 
off independently toward the south, settling 
throughout Kavirondo and still farther on ; 
and some few more daring spirits are accre- 
dited with having crossed the Lake Victoria 
to Uganda. 

Certain it is, there seems a wonderful rela- 
tionship, which can scarcely be wholly due to 
the similarity of construction that exists in all 
Bantu tongues, between Lumasaba, Lukavi- 
rondo, and Lusukuma towards the south, and 



Perfect Classification 321 

between Lumasaba and Lugwere (old Lusoga), 
Lunyoro, and Luganda. 

It remains but to compare the dialects 
spoken in the districts of Ketosh, Bunyuli, 
Bugwere, Bulamogi, and South-east Kyagwe, 
North Bulondaganyi, and the shores of Lake 
Kyoga, to find the stages of transition. 

Such a comparative study would, I am cer- 
tain, well repay the effort ; but I can refer to 
it only incidentally, in order to make known 
a striking peculiarity in Lumasaba. 

Learners are always reminded the " one cha- 
racteristic of Bantu grammatical structure is 
that nouns have prefixes according to classes." 
As the languages of the Victoria Nyanza Bantu 
group are at present used, this is not strictly 
correct, for no learner can possibly differentiate 
by the class prefix the singular of Class I. 
from the singular of Class II., or the plural of 
Class III. from the singular of the same class, 
or the plural of Class VI. from the plural of 
Class III. ; and it is not until the pronominal 
concords are known that nouns can be correctly 
classified. 

This confusing similarity in substantival 
class forms, but clear differentiation of classes 
in pronominal agreements, is a real difficulty 
to one trying to learn Luganda, for the 
noun is often represented pronominally by a 



322 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

form quite foreign to the known substantival 
form, e.g. : — 



Class. 


Noun. 


Poss. Pron. Form. 


Pron. Form. 


I. 


S. omuntu, a man 


wange (the man) 


bamulese, they have 






of me 


brought him 




P. abantu, the men 


bange, they of me 


babalese, they have 
brought them 


II. 


S. omuti, a tree 


gwange, mine or it 


bagulese, they have 






of me 


brought it 




P. emiti, the trees 


gyange, mine or 


bagilese, they have 






they of me 


brought them 


III. 


S. ente, a cow 


yange 


bagilese, they have 
brought it 




P. ente, the cows 


zange 


bazilese, they have 
brought them 


IV. 


S. ekintu, a thing 


kyange 


bakilese, they have 
brought it 




P. ebintu, the 


byange 


babilese, they have 




things 




brought them 


V. 


S. ejinja, a stone 


lyange 


balilese, they have 
brought it 




P. amainja, the 


gange 


bagalese, they have 




stones 




brought them 


VI. 


S. olugoye, a cloth 


Iwange 


balulese, they have 
brought it 




P. engoye, the 


zange 


bazilese, they have 




cloths 




brought them 



So far as I am aware, no hint has ever been 
given as to why, to take one case only, the 
pronominal forms of Class II. should be " gu " 
and " gi " ; and, bearing in mind the difficulty to 
account for the initial vowel, I have dared to 
think that the substantival class forms found 
in the Victoria Nyanza Bantu group are not 



Lumasaba Class Forms 323 

now in their original perfect forms ; and, as 
evidence in favour of this opinion, I most 
respectfully ask the attention of all interested 
in " Bantu " to the class forms used by these 
primitive mountain people, the Bagishu, or 
Bamasaba : — 



Class. 


Noun. 


Poss. Pron. Form. 


Pron. Form. 


I. 


S. umundu, a man 


wase 


bamurerere 




P. babandu 


base 


babarerere 


II. 


S. kumubano, a knife 


kwase 


bakurerere 




P. kimibano 


kyase 


kakirerere 


III. 


S. ingafu, a cow 


yase 


bakirerere 




P. tsingafu 


tsase 


batsirerere 


IV. 


S. kikindu, a thing 


kyase 


bakirerere 




P. bibindu 


byase 


babirerere 


V. 


S. libali, a stone 


lyase 


balirerere 




P. kamabali 


kase 


bakarerere 


VI. 


S. lugoye, a piece 
of bark 


Iwase 


balurerere 




P. tsingoye 


tsase 


batsirerere 



I have purposely chosen for comparison the first 
six classes only, because the remaining classes 
are subordinate ; but these are sufficient to 
show the enormous value to the Lumasaba 
language of the prefixes, not found in this com- 
plete form, so far as I can find in any other 
Bantu tongue. 

The question as to whether the more perfect 
class forms found at Masaba are more primitive 
than those used by kindred peoples, is still an 



324 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

open one; but to me it seems hardly likely 
that the Masaba language has developed whilst 
the customs, manners, and general surroundings 
of the people have remained stationary. 

The perfectly regulated grammatical con- 
struction of the Lumasaba language was a 
revelation to me, as was also their compara- 
tively rich vocabulary. 

I have been able to compile a dictionary of 
some ten thousand words, and although with 
this number it is quite possible to understand 
and be understood, yet it forms but a portion 
of the native vocabulary. 

There is an almost total lack of words which 
we Europeans use to express abstract ideas, 
and in missionary work this lack is very much 
felt. Such ideas as love, grace, faith, trust, 
holiness, &c., are quite unknown ; and it is 
necessary to take other words, commonly 
used for the nearest equivalent meanings, and 
read and teach into them the fuller, deeper 
meanings. 

If " love " exists, it is not expressed, and the 
Bagishu will only learn to express it by reading 
the deeper meaning into the word " Kugana " 
(want). 

" Holiness " is quite unknown in reality or as 
an idea, but it is remarkable how quickly they 
grasp the idea of holiness, and the appropriate- 



Evolving Abstract Ideas 325 

ness of using the word " Kikosefu" (cleanness or 
whiteness) to express it. 

" Faith " is expressed by the word " Kuf u- 
kirira," which means "to agree to," whilst the 
deeper meanings of " grace " will be given to 
the word used to express " good-nature." 

Many other words were equally difficult but 
more amusing to locate. 

For months I was endeavouring to get the 
Lugishu equivalent for the English word hypo- 
crite, and was met on nearly every hand 
with the statement that a person possessing 
such properties as we think go to make a 
hypocrite is a liar — a truth indeed ! 

The adjective mad conveys all the Bagishu 
wish to say about a person of constantly 
changeful mind ; and in answer to the ques- 
tion of what they call a person who cannot 
come to a definite conclusion upon a subject, 
I was informed that they had no people of 
that kind in their country ; and I quite 
believe it. 

Having solved some grammar rules, I was able, 
with the help of a Mugishu lad, Polo, who was 
afterwards baptized Andrew, to prepare a small 
reading-book which enjoys the title " Bimanyisa 
Kusoma " (the things which cause to know how 
to read). It opens with letters in Roman cha- 
racter, script and ordinary, small and capital ; 



326 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

figures, syllables, words, sentences, prayers, 
Creed, Commandments, texts of Scripture, the 
copy of a written letter, and a multiplication 
table. 

Such a little book is of very great help in 
trying to teach these people, and it is not a 
little amusing to receive, most carefully folded, 
a piece of old newspaper, upon which is written 
an exact copy of the letter set at the end of 
the book : — 

Masaba, Julcd 20, 1907. 

Tbaruwa ya Nayu. 

Nakuchyesere lugali mulebe wase : Wena ? ugona oryena ? 
Ne bimutsu barye ? Ubambonere bosi, ni babolera ngana 
kubabona wangu. Byaweye. 

Ise wakyo, 

Nayu. 

Translation. 

The letter of What's -his -name. 

I salute you very much, my brother : How are you ? How 
have you slept ? And how are all in the house ? See 
them all for me, and tell them I wish to see them soon. 
The (words) are finished. 

I am yours, 

What's-his-namb. 



The youngsters are fairly quick to learn, 
and quite a large number are now able to read 



A Native Prayer Book 327 

a small catechism called " Katabo Kanyoher- 
wako," i.e., the first book, which is used to 
teach them elementary religious truths. 

One has also been able to translate Morning 
and Evening Prayer, The Litany, Baptism Ser- 
vice, Church Catechism, Confirmation Service, 
and various hymns. From these the S.P.C.K. 
have published what is called 



KULOMBA 
KWIKUMUTIKINYI NI KWIHANGOLOBE 

NU 

BAKIRI KUBATISIWA 

NI MU 

BANA BAKECHE 

NE 

KULOMBA KWIMUBIRO BIKALI 
BITWERA 

NE 

TSINYIMBO TSIKUBOLERESA WERE 

MU 

BABANDU BOSI 

(Service Book, Hymns, and Occasional Prayers 
in Lumasaba.) 



328 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

In mission work of this kind there are many 
discouragements ; but any man would feel more 
than repaid to know that a people who answer 
almost exactly to Dr. F. C. Shrubsall's descrip- 
tion given in the Lancet for April, 1908, of the 
Bushmen Hottentots, " They are said to have 
greater powers than the average of twisting 
their bolas and to practise sitting down and 
shooting poisoned arrows at one another. . . . 
Their habitations were caverns, rock-shelters, or 
merely mats spread over branches. . . . They slept 
coiled up. . . . They wore little clothing, and 
adorned themselves with necklets of beads 
made from the shells of ostrich eggs," can meet 
together and evidently enjoy the using of 
prayers and the singing of hymns such as we 
in England know so well. 



" Papa wefwe ali mu igulu, Lisinalyo likosewe. Bubwaka- 
bakabwo bwitse. Byogana babikole mu kyalo, nga nibabikola 
mu igulu. Ukvihe kya lero biryo byefwe bya kifuku, Ukuya- 
kire kukwonaga kwefwe, ngefwe bweknbayakira bakwonaga 
Ukakuhira mu bukongeresi, ne ukuhonese mu bubi. Kubanga 
bubwakabaka, ni bunyala, ni kitifwa, nibyo byowo, biro ni biro. 
Amina." 



is the Lord's Prayer in Lumasaba, whilst the 
following are verses translated from well- 
known hymns : — 



Well-known Hymns 329 

Onward, Christian Soldiers. 

" Babana ba Yesu mwinyuke mwesi I 
Mulole Yesu, uyu warangiye : 
Mu basiku bosi Yesu ufura ; 
Nakulanga Umwami ; kutsye naye. 
Babana ba Yesu, mwinyuke mwesi, 
Mulole Yesu, uyu warangiye." 



For My Sake and the GospeVs. 

" Kulwase ni Kalwenjiri 
Mutsiye bana base : 
Nibiramu " Hakutsiye ; 
Elitifwa kibe kyuli." 
Itsa kufira babandu. 
Papa we nga muruma : 
Wamalaho bibi byefwe, 
I we kufwa hukisina." 



Bock of Ages. 

" Lurale Iwikale iwe 
Lwitikira ktilwase 
Muchi mwenibisira 
Mafugike ichikama. 
Bibi byosi binduseko, 
Mbonesa mu mani kabyo." 



That the language is fairly rich in idiom 
may be gathered from the following examples 
of how the question " Why ? " may be asked : — 



Kikulobeye Kukwitsa kina ? — Why did you refuse to come ? 
Kina kigirire wala kwitsa ? — Why did you not come ? 



330 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

Kina kigira ukatsya ? — Why have you not gone ? 

Kina kigira akagobola ? — Why is he not returned ? 

Kina kigirire balaire kugobola? — Why have they not re- 
turned ? 

Kina kyagira bala kugobola ? — Why did they not return ? 

Kina kikukingiriye kukwitsa wangu ? — Why did you not 
come at once? 

Kina kigira ukateka ? — Why do you refuse to cook ? 

Kina kigirire walahakuteka ? — Why have you not cooked ? 

Kina kikukolesere kiri ? — What causes you to act thus ? 

Kikukolesere kiryo kina ? — Why did you do this or that ? 

Ukolere kina oryo ? — Why have you done thus ? 

Wakola kina oryo ? — Why did you do thus ? 

Kina kigira ukola oryo ? or Kigira ukola oryo kina ? — Why 
are you doing thus ? 

Urerere kametsi ka ki ? — Why have you brought the water ? 

Kikurerere kina? — Why have you come ? (Lit., What has 
brought you ?) 

Loma kigirire ukola oryo ? — Give the reason why you act 
thus? 



The language reveals to us that even these 
primitive people know how to be polite, and a 
stranger will do fairly well among them if he 
learns nothing more than a few salutations. 
Certain of these are used irrespective of time, 
such as " Mulembe ? or Mirembe ? — Peace." 



Ans. Mulembe — Peace. 

Ques. Ulame ? — A very old form. Probably means " Are 
you there ? " 
Ans. Ulame. 



Lumasaba Salutations 331 

Ques. Wena ? Are you well ? 
Ans. Wena ? Are you well ? 

Morning Salutations. 

Wagonere oryena ? — How have you slept ? 
Nagonere bulahi ? Njebewe ? — I have slept weU. Perhaps 
you? i.e., How about yourself? 

Bengo baryena ? — How are those at home ? 
Baliyo balwakire. — They are weU. How are you ? 

Afternoon Salutations. 

Wabuyire oryena ? — How have you passed the day ? 

Nabuyire bulahi. Njebewe ? — I have passed it well. Perhaps 
you? 

If the person addressed is ill he uses the word nindwala — I 
am ill — instead of bulahi. 



There is no exact equivalent for our Goodbye. 
The departing guest says Nitsya — I am going ; 
to which is often added the wish Nule, or Nule 
bulahi — May I reach, or May I reach safely. 



Nutsye wule bulahi. — Go, may you reach safely. 
Nule bulahi. — May I reach safely. 
Nutsye ugona bulahi. — May you go and sleep well. 
Ngone bulahi. — May I sleep well. 



My great hope was to translate the Scriptures, 
but such a work was not to be begun until the 
details and scope of the language had been 
mastered. With the Grammar and Dictionary 



332 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

completed, the way seemed open for the con- 
templation of the greater work; but evidently 
it had not to be, for doctor's orders are impera- 
tive, and one can only live in hope that another 
opportunity for this work will be given. 




VISITORS TO THE YOUNG WHITE CHIEF. 
334 



CHAPTER XVI 

LIGHT AND SHADE 

Slow progress — Friendly and trustful natives — Spirit of inde- 
pendence — Indian hemp-smoking — Effect of evil practices 
— Native dances — Drink and fighting — Wailing — Native 
industry — Lighthearted geniality — Witchcraft — The power 
of suggestion — Protection against witchcraft — No God of 
love in Masaba — Evil spirits — Altars and offerings — 
Sacrifices — Sacred groves — A liking for football — Ghoulish 
practices — A low standard of civilisation — Compensations 
— Native ability — Open doors. 

WITH buildings, books, and additional staff 
the work is more definitely organised, 
hopeful, and interesting ; but Masaba is one of 
those mission fields where mental, moral, and 
spiritual progress will be slow. The habits and 
customs of past generations will not be lightly 
cast off, and loving patience will be necessary to 
hold the people until they understand, appre- 
ciate, and accept the structure you are trying 
to erect to some extent on the foundation of 
belief already found among them. 

jy 335 



33^ Uganda to Mount Elgon 

One of the greatest pleasures of life at Masaba 
has been the perfectly friendly and trustful 
manner of the natives towards us at all times; 
and this attitude is one to be encouraged and 
reciprocated whether the people attend church 
and school or not, for it enables the missionary 
to get to the back of the native mind — to know 
something of their beliefs and unbeliefs, strength 
and weakness, likes and dislikes, hopes and fears. 
It will also enable him to do his work and limit 
his expectations according to the character of 
the people, rather than according to precon- 
ceived ideas gathered in a country such as 
Uganda, where the history of the people and 
the circumstances of life are totally different. 

Here there is no king or feudal chief to influ- 
ence his followers one way or the other. Every 
man, woman, and child claims to be indepen- 
dent, and we often see the effect of this inde- 
pendence on our school children. 

Probably through some early Arab traveller, 
the Indian hemp plant has been introduced into 
Masaba, and is cultivated by almost every house- 
holder, then gathered, dried, and smoked through 
a very primitive hubble-bubble pipe, made from 
a hollowed gourd which contains the water. 

As a rule the adults are temperate in the use 
of the weed : a man will even forbid his wife to 
smoke it on account of some evil effect it is said 



Evil Practices 337 



to have upon her or her child, should she be 
about to become a mother; but father and 
mother are quite careless about their children 
smoking it : for are not the children themselves 
responsible for their habits? 

I have heard and seen the effect of this 
" bhang " smoking on porters from the coast, 
and thought it dangerous enough in the case 
of strong men, but when I saw its effect upon 
the Bagishu children I was appalled. 

The brightest little boys and girls have 
attended our classes and made remarkable 
progress for a time ; then suddenly lost their 
brightness, interest, health, and intelligence. 
At first this puzzled me ; but there is little 
doubt but that it is due to the smoking of 
hemp, or, as the natives put it, to the drinking 
of " itsayi," since the act of smoking can only 
be described by the native as drinking. 

Contributory causes to this dulness are sexual 
connection among the young and drinking the 
native strong drink, though the latter is not 
often indulged in by children. 

It seems incomprehensible that a people so 
strict at certain times about the purity of their 
girls, that a girl pregnant before marriage is 
punished, and a girl suffering from specific dis- 
ease becomes an outcast, should at other times 
encourage them in what they pronounce wrong- 



338 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

doing. Yet the heads of families actually do 
this by holding at certain seasons of the year 
what they call an "ingoma," i.e., an all-night 
orgy, to which all young people of other clans 
are invited by the beating of a peculiar long 
drum known as an ingoma. 

These festivals are generally held about the 
time of full moon, and sometimes go on night 
after night. Undoubtedly the idea is to pair off 
the young people and to fix up engagements. 

The Bagishu are passionately fond of dancing, 
and crowd to these " ingomas " for the pro- 
fessedly innocent as well as the wrong sport 
to be obtained. 

Dancing plays an important part in their lives, 
for at marriage and death, to mark sorrow and 
joy, they dance until they are ready to drop from 
fatigue. 

Intoxicating drink, too, is a source of great 
evil in the country, for it is used to mark every 
event in life. Births, deaths, marriages, pre- 
paring the land and gathering the harvest, 
before a fight and after a fight, are all oppor- 
tunities upon which recourse is had to one or 
other of the native drinks. 

The drinks native to the country are " indali 
inyana," an unfermented drink made from sweet 
bananas only; a fermented drink, " indali indule," 
made from sweet bananas and fermented with 



Refreshing Candour 339 

millet seed ; and another fermented drink, 
"busera," made from two kinds of millet seed. 

I have said that dancing plays an important 
part in the lives of the Bagishu ; well, even 
dancing loses its relish if drink is absent. 

There are private drinks, clan drinks, culti- 
vation drinks, wedding drinks — the people of 
Mabasa have not yet reached the stage so pre- 
valent in England of serving out intoxicating 
liquors at funerals — circumcision drinks, and 
drinks indulged in to prepare the warriors for 
a fight ; a real fight I mean, not a political 
election. 

The candour with which the Bagishu an- 
nounced their drinking proclivities was at first 
rather a shock, but after all was so unusual that 
it proved refreshing. Building operations had 
been going on for some time at the mission 
station, and I anticipated a successful and hasty 
conclusion, when some of the elders approached 
me and said they were going off for at least two 
weeks to drink, and I must get on as best I could 
without them. No humbug about them in that 
matter at any rate, and I found them much the 
same if an individual was missing from work, 
school, or church at any time. They did not say 
he had gone into the country, or had a sudden 
attack of illness ; they said he was at home or 
elsewhere drinking. 



340 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

The effect of hard, drinking is as evident 
among the adults as that of hemp-smoking is 
among the young. Some of them are in a 
constant state of driveUing inebriation, whilst 
others become cantankerous and quarrelsome. 

A foolish word of boasting or contempt 
spoken at a drinking party has led to many a 
quarrel with serious results ; and one such 
termination happened soon after our arrival 
at Masaba. A company of men were drinking 
not far from our station, and one of the visitors 
had spoken disrespectfully of his hosts. He 
realised his mistake and made tracks for home 
as hard as he could go followed by about half 
a dozen young fellows each armed, like himself, 
with a long, business-like stick. They caught 
him as he passed our door, and but for our 
instant intervention he would undoubtedly 
have been killed. As it was I had to bind 
up his frightfully cut and bruised head and 
shoulders, his assailants looking on muchly 
interested but crestfallen. 

On another occasion my wife and I were at 
the rest-house in the hills. The men of a 
neighbouring village had been up the mountain 
to a large drinking party, and on their return 
I had some conversation with them and found 
that some argument was being continued. 
This led to a quarrel when they reached home, 



A Fatal Argument 341 

and we were not surprised to see some of the 
houses of the village go up in flames. It was, 
however, rather disconcerting to know that 
the quarrel had become a general fight, and 
it was something of a shock to me next morn- 
ing, on my going down to see if any required 
their wounds dressed, to find one fine young 
fellow lying dead. In the heat of the argument 
he had given his companion the lie, and the 
other had promptly rammed a spear down his 
throat. 

As is always the case, the murderer had fled 
with his nearest male relatives, and men and 
women had gathered near the corpse to dance 
the death dance — a weird sight and sound, for 
the men as a rule dress in war attire and with 
iron bells fastened just below the knee dance to 
the rhythm of the sound, whilst the women with 
their string dress hanging down loose behind, 
dance near the men but not with them, and add 
to the weirdness of the occasion by wailing at 
regular intervals. 

This ceremony is performed with the idea of 
giving honour to the spirit as it enters 
" Makombe," the spirit-world. 

We must not run away with the idea that 
the people of Masaba do nothing but drink 
and fight, for one is amazed at the little harm 
they do each other, and at the amount of 



342 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

industry that might be turned into channels 
more profitable to the people and the country. 

The native blacksmiths are men who work 
with the most elementary tools it is possible 
to conceive : a stone for an anvil, and another 
for a hammer, yet their work will certainly 
bear inspection. 

The houses are better than the houses of 
Usoga, and indeed superior to the houses that 
have, until this last year or two, satisfied the 
peasant of Uganda. 

It is remarkable too that in Masaba the men 
help to cultivate ; indeed, they are primarily 
responsible for the cultivation of all cereals 
whilst the women are responsible for the 
plantain groves. 

There is a charming lightheartedness, breezy 
geniality, and kind good-nature about the 
Mugishu that reminds one of Ireland ; and 
when prospects are darkest keep one hopeful. 

The crowds that came from far and near to 
listen to the gramophone — or at other times 
to see and play with the little white boys 
until the baby or his father would produce a 
doll, when off they would scamper with shrieks 
of wonder and fear real and feigned — were 
always good-natured crowds, ready to do any- 
thing for the white babies or their mother. 

These visits enabled us to get a little insight 




BAGISHU BLACKSMITHS. 



343 



The Power of Witchcraft 345 

into their inmost thoughts, and showed us 
something of their terribly strong belief in the 
power of witchcraft and the evil eye, for not 
only were the visitors themselves sometimes 
frightened by the children's dolls or mechanical 
toys, but men have again and again come to ask 
for the loan of a doll with which they wished 
to bewitch some opponent or other. 

This belief in witchcraft is one of the greatest 
and most dangerous powers in the land, and is 
sometimes responsible for most terrible conse- 
quences. 

One such case came under my notice not long 
ago. My wife and I were visiting a native 
village and saw a young woman of fine physique, 
known to us, leaning listlessly against a grain 
store. I suggested her doing some work, but her 
answer was that she was seriously ill. I told 
her she did not look ill, and that perhaps a little 
work would put her right ; but the chief and 
other people came near and assured me that 
she was seriously ill, having been bewitched. 
I begged for an explanation, and they told me 
that some little time before my visit the girl 
and others were playing, when a man, well 
known to them all, ran off with her beads, 
kept them for some time, and then returned 
them to the girl, who put them on and imme- 
diately believed herself bewitched. From that 



34^ Uganda to Mount Elgon 

moment she declared herself unable to work, 
and no amount of argument, ridicule, or 
expostulation availed to shake the foolish 
belief of herself and people. Her mind was 
fixed, her body gradually but somewhat rapidly 
gave way and she died, whereupon a solemn 
meeting of the clan was called to try the 
case : witnesses gave evidence against the man, 
who was declared guilty of witchcraft and 
straightway beaten to death. 

There was no attempt on the part of the clan 
to shirk responsibility for his death. I under- 
stand the matter was reported to the Govern- 
ment officer, who sent for the man really 
responsible for this judicial murder, and he 
went immediately, declared his responsibility, 
as head of that portion of the clan, and justified 
his action by native custom. 

I do not suppose that even so-called Christian 
Scientists can give us a more striking example 
of the effect of mind over matter than the one 
just quoted ; and there are many such in 
Masaba. 

The people are often charging each other 
with witchcraft and the practice of the evil 
eye, and great care is taken to detect such 
people. 

Every house is built with little spy- holes 
through which watchers look at night for any 




347 



An Amusing Episode 349 

enemy who may creep up and place a kumusala, 
that is, a piece of tree specially used by 
bewitchers, who place it outside the door of a 
house in such a way that a person coming out, 
unless very careful, is obliged to touch it. I need 
not say that the Bagishu are very careful as they 
come out of their houses in the early morning ; 
and they are also careful to find out who travels 
about at night. 

The fear of being charged with witchcraft is 
an effectual deterrent against late hours in 
Masaba, and the trial of culprits is indeed laugh- 
able were the consequences of an adverse verdict 
not so terrible. 

Not long ago a clan met together to try A for 
witchcraft. He was not a favourite in the clan, 
and they were willing to grasp at any evidence 
against him. He was charged with being seen 
near a certain house late one night, and B, who 
was a great favourite, gave evidence that he 
saw A near the said house. When passing the 
assembled crowd I asked the reason for their 
being together, and the elders came and told me 
of A's guilt as proved by B. They looked very 
much surprised when I suggested that B should 
be charged with witchcraft, for, on his own con- 
fession, he was near the said house at a wrong 
hour. In his case there was no doubt about it, 
but in A's case there was some question. 



350 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

I knew that B was safe, but my suggestion 
doubled him up and he made for home amid the 
loud laughter of the assembly, which immediately 
congratulated A on his innocence. 

A recent letter from Masaba says : " Only the 
other day some of the Bagishu went up the hill 
to burn down a medicine-man's house, because 
he had promised them rain, had taken their 
cattle, and had sent them only a terrible wind, 
which blew down their toki (plantain-trees)." 

It is to be expected that such beliefs interfere 
very considerably with missionary effort, for 
although the Bagishu believe in Were, the 
Creator of all things, the Great Spirit, they 
think of Him as one to be greatly feared on 
account of His ability to do them harm ; and 
almost their chief thought in life is how to 
appease Were and the many evil spirits known 
as Kimisamhwa. 

An altar is erected inside every house to 
the spirit responsible for the safe-keeping of 
houses ; and upon it is placed food and drink 
offerings. Then just outside the door may 
be seen little altars built in the form of tiny 
houses, erected to the honour of various spirits 
responsible for health, weather, &c. 

When examining these shrines I have often 
reminded the people that they cannot think 
highly of the wisdom of these spirits when they 



Sacrifices 351 

dare to eat the inside out of an egg and then 
place the shell in such a position that a casual 
onlooker might think it full. 

There is no such thing as worship among the 
Bagishu of Masaba such as we understand it; 
but in times of sickness, famine, war, and 
pestilence sacrifices of goats and oxen are made 
to Were, and presents offered through the witch- 
doctors to the evil spirits. 

In the case of sickness, the nearest relative of 
the sick person provides the offering, which is 
brought to the door of the house in which the 
sick person lies. This relative places his hand 
on the head of the offering and professedly 
gives it to Were. If the goat or ox micturates, 
the offering has been accepted, and there is 
great joy and hope ; but if not, it is said that 
Were refuses the offering, and it is killed in 
gloom and despair. 

The offering is cut up and distributed to the 
onlookers in the hope that any who may have 
bewitched the sick person will withdraw the 
evil influence. God and man, they hope, is thus 
appeased. 

It behoves every member of the clan to attend 
these offerings, and also the dance performed 
after the death of a person, in order to remove 
any suspicion of having been concerned by 
witchcraft in the sickness or death. 



352 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

There are also periodic processions to the 
sacred groves found on the land of each clan, 
when offerings are made by the witch-doctors 
to the evil spirits, much drink consumed, and 
licentious practices indulged in. 

It may be difficult to credit that these men 
are good companions on the march, and delight- 
ful in the football field ; yet such they are, and 
nothing appeals to them more than a good game 
of " Association," and even the little chaps will 
leave their imitation fights with bows, arrows, 
spears, and shields to learn all about " off-side," 
" corner," " throw in," &c. In fact, their appetite 
for football is greater than we can satisfy, for 
the outer cases of footballs rot very quickly in 
the severe sun. 

Europeans are always astonished at the way 
these " All blacks " can kick off the toe of a 
naked foot, and also at the sportsmanlike way 
in which they take a " charge " or a beating. 

I have already referred to the custom of 
throwing out the dead practised at Masaba; 
and possibly this is responsible for, and not 
because of, the more loathsome custom of 
cannibalism. 

No Mugishu will own that he is guilty of such 
a practice, but every one says that some one 
else does it. 

Without doubt it is done and in a ghoulish 



Cannibalism 353 



manner ; for the dead are not always left to the 
hyaenas. The natives suggest that it is only 
done in the case of bitter enemies at war with 
each other; but the more horrible practice of 
eating the corpse of a dead friend was once 
brought to my knowledge, and the only redeem- 
ing feature about it w^as that, when known, it 
caused bitter shame. 

Sir H. H. Johnston was surely right — so far 
as some things are concerned — regarding their 
low standard of civilisation. A glimpse at some 
of the faces is enough to satisfy on that point, 
but the pleasure and satisfaction of helping 
them upward is all the greater ; and to see a 
naked, wild, uncouth youth grow^ reasonable, 
kindly, thoughtful, and manly is worth a good 
deal more than a " go " of blackwater fever. 
This has been the case again and again in 
various parts of the Uganda Protectorate, due 
to the influence of the Gospel of Jesus Christ : 
and I have reason to think it has been so, in a 
small measure, at Masaba, where the lad Polo, 
not beautiful to look at, but one of the best 
wrestlers in the country, stuck to me day after 
day and helped me with the language until I 
was invalided. He with others was baptized 
more than a year ago, and to-day he is a teacher 
in the boys' school at our central station in 
Masaba, and, if I mistake not, has with the help 



354 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

of a European, been endeavouring to translate 
the Gospels. 

On every hand there is evidence that a mission 
station has been a peace-factor and blessing to 
the district, for drinking and fighting went 
decidedly out of fashion ; and my collection of 
curios prove that weapons of warfare have been 
given up for instruments of agriculture, one hoe 
for a spear, two for a knife, and from three to 
five for a shield. 

Old beliefs and customs die hard, and no one 
outside Masaba can conceive what it means to 
have a hundred of these people under daily 
instruction, or a congregation of over two 
hundred at the central station on Sundays. 

If one of these attenders fall sick, the out- 
siders tell him that we have bewitched him, or 
that Were has punished him for presuming to 
speak to Him as we do in our prayers. 

Some of the Bagishu even come near the 
church to see what will happen to such 
audacious people as those who join us at 
worship ; and some of the parents are so 
nervous that when the school drum sounds they 
drive their children into the bush to prevent 
their attending. A glimpse at some of the 
pictures will show, however, that this fear is 
not universal, for the tiniest little mites come 
and squat down at our door or in the school ; 




DUORS THAT ARK BEING 0PK\P:D. 

355 



open Doors 357 

and for every childish ailment the help of the 
European is now sought and gladly given. 

In the more distant fortified villages the doors 
have been opened to the missionary ; and nearer 
home we organise sports as well as offer work 
to counteract the dangerous tendencies of a 
decidedly energetic people. 



18 



CHAPTER XVII 

NATIONALISING AND DENATIONALISING 
THE NATIVE 

The unsettling of the native mind — Bringing them into line — 
A bad inheritance — Painful memories — The evils of armed 
agents and pimitive expeditions — Improvements — Possi- 
bilities. 

ONE of the greatest difficulties that we have 
had to contend with in the work at 
Masaba was the unsettling of the native mind 
and mode of life by the incoming of Govern- 
ment administration. 

In 1903 the actual work of dealing with the 
natives was done by the Muganda chief, Semei 
Kakungulu, who is now in Usoga. He had 
placed his agents in various parts of the country 
to rule it on lines similar to the feudal system 
of Uganda, and he was answerable for the 
general condition of the district to the British 
official at Budaka, situate some twenty miles 
from Masaba. 

358 



Bringing the Native into Line 359 

It was the express wish of the then Com- 
missioner of Uganda that the raw natives in 
this eastern portion of his district should be 
"brought into line," as the expression goes, 
very gradually ; and probably to make sure 
that the Muganda chief and his men played 
square with the native and the Government 
the official post was moved from Budaka to 
Mbale, a Uganda colony situate at the 
western side of the Elgon foothills, brought 
into existence by the dogged perseverance 
and hard work of the chief Kakungulu and 
his people. 

New assistant collectors were appointed from 
time to time, and gradually a new order of 
things was evolved which brought the Baganda 
in outlying places directly under the control of 
the Government officer. 

I am convinced that this step was taken for 
the good of the Bagishu ; but after some four 
years' residence in the district I am bound to 
say, having earnestly and carefully weighed the 
seriousness of the statement, that during the 
years of my residence which mark the intro- 
duction of law into Masaba there seems to me 
to have been less peace, less security of property, 
and more, very much more, bloodshed than 
during the period I lived there without direct 
British administration. The method of collect- 



360 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

ing hut-tax inherited by each assistant collector 
— in every case a kindly man and a gentleman 
— was no doubt responsible to a great extent 
for the unsatisfactory condition of things ; and 
the introduction of punitive expeditions as a 
means of meting out punishment did not tend 
to ideaHse British rule in the minds of the 
natives. 

My memories of the troubles between the 
Administration and the people of Masaba are 
altogether painful, for in almost every instance 
my sympathies are with the native, as I am 
sure would be those of any man who had been 
asked by the men of a clan to beg back the 
women who had been taken prisoners ; to con- 
sole the relatives and friends of a dead woman 
whom they deposited at my door, and said to 
have been one of four, besides men, shot that 
day by the native police ; and obliged to turn 
the vestry into a hospital for the wounded, 
shot by native hut-tax collectors and their men 
without any provocation whatever. 

These armed Baganda hut-tax collectors, many 
of them of the very worst type, distributed 
throughout the district and working on the 
percentage system, could be no other than a 
menace to peace and prosperity; and I am 
firmly convinced that they and their methods 
were responsible for at least two of the troubles 



Punitive Expeditions 361 

for which the natives were punished by the 
expensive and deplorable method of a punitive 
— I had almost written primitive — expedition. 
The punitive expedition is one method of 
dealing with an uncivilised people, but I believe 
too much in British common sense to think that 
the general verdict will be that it is the only 
or even a commendable method. A hundred 
pounds' worth of rubber-trees sent to an 
erring clan, with a sensible man who could 
teach them how to plant and rear them, 
would do far more good to them and us 
than all the punitive expeditions in the 
world. 

The system of hut-tax collection has been 
altered by the Administration, and for that 
we are deeply grateful, but hope the use 
of the gun will be absolutely forbidden 
except in cases of direst necessity for self- 
defence. The darkness of such a people 
as the Bagishu of Masaba, Mount Elgon 
"savage and uncivilised," as they have been 
called, is great indeed, but they are capable 
of responding to gentle methods, and the 
dawn, though slight, is visible and hopeful. 
Shall we not encourage and strengthen the 
gentle methods, though slow and tedious, 
remembering the Luganda proverb quoted 
once before, " Akwata mpola atuka wala " 



362 Uganda to Mount Elgon 

(" He who goes slowly reaches far "), rather 
than seek by harsher methods to make 
haste in a direction the end of which 
can be none other than moral and physical 
desolation ? 



INDEX 



Abuketi and Agu, 250 
Abyssinia, 91, 172, 217, 265 
Acholi country and people, 86, 

250 
Aden, 22 

Administration of Uganda, 151 
Africa, 33 

Africa, British East, 27, 28 
Africa, West, 130 
Africa, white man's, 39 
African and Asiatic, 54 
African Highlands, 40, 41, 45, 

50 
African, the, 45, 46 
Albert Edward Lake, 97 
Albert Lake, 97, 260 
Algerian Fathers, 180 
Aloe plant, 34 
Anglican renegades, 216 
Anglo-African town, 43 
Antelope, 37 
Ants, 130 
Apolo Kagwa, Sir, K.C.M.G., 

158 
Arab and African, 60 
Arab houses, 24 



Archdeacon Buckley, 228, 256 
Archdeacon Walker, 144 
Aryan and Negro interming- 
ling, 55 
Asiatic element, 57 
Athi plain, 64 
Atoxyl, an, 108 



Bagishu, 271 

Bahuma, 140 

Bamasaba, 271 

Bantu Kavirondo, 64 

Bantu language, 317 

Bantu tribe, 38, 63, 64, 68, 271 

Baptisms at Masaba, 316 

Bari people, 86 

Bark cloth, 137 

Barrage across Ripon Falls, 

109 
Beaten track, the, 21 
Bees, 130 

Belgian Equatorial Africa, 27 
Belief in witchcraft, 345 
" Bhang " smoking, 337 
Bishop Hannington, 144, 188, 

228, 239 



363 



3^4 



Index 



Bishop Tucker of Uganda, 146, 

228 
Bishop Tucker's Palace, 195 
Blackwater fever, 131, 233, 353 
Bombay, 55 

Boyle, A., Esq., C.M.G., 231 
British East Africa, 28, 40, 60, 

91 
British East Africa Company, 

89, 146 
British East African tribes, 

60-79 
British Equatorial Africa, 27 
British route, 37 
British shipowners, 22 
British v. German enterprise, 

22 
Bruce, Colonel, 106 
Buckley, Rev. T. E., 228, 256 
Budaka, 358 
Bukedi, 241 
Bulemezi, 224 
Bululu, 256 
Buvuma Islands, 97 
" Bwana Tayari," 165 



Cannibals, 304, 352 

Canoes, 94, 97 

Cardinal Vaughan, 180 

Castellani, Dr., 105 

Cathedral, the English, 181 

Cattle, 44 

Central Province of Uganda, 

232 
Cereals, 44 

Chamber of Commerce, 161 
Chilhes, 117 



Christian Missions, 56 
Church and State, 209 
Church Missionary Society, 32, 

88, 89, 90, 104, 134, 157, 161, 
176, 179, 188, 234 

Church organisation, 212 
Church uses and discipline, 

214 
Circumcision, 271 
Civilisation, 31, 32 
Climate, 33, 44, 87, 131 
Cocoanut cultivation, 33, 34 
Collection of taxes, 158, 360 
Colonists' Association, 50 
Colony of British East Africa, 

44, 50, 53 
Company, British East Africa, 

89, 146 
Competition evils, 53 
Concubines, 31 
Congo Free State, 233 

Cook, Dr. A. K, 104, 132, 188, 

190, 202 
Cook, Dr. J. H., 104, 132, 188, 

202 
Cotton cultivation, 33, 116 
Cotton export, 117 
Cotton ginning, 177 
Crabtree, Mrs., 259, 298 
Crabtree, Rev. W. A., 298, 317 
Crocodile, 94 
Cubitt, 231 
Culex anopheles, 128 
Customs of Bagishu, 265-293 

D 

Dak bungalows, 37 
Danger of numbers, 198 



Index 



365 



Dangers of education, 204 

David (Daudi), King of Uganda, 
146, 154 

Debasian, Mount, 249, 259 

Denationalising the native, 358 

Densham, Dr., 119, 188 

Develop native responsibility, 
211 

De Winton, 188 

Difficulties with Roman Catho- 
lics, 216 

Disciphne of Church members, 
215 

Discovery of Lake Victoria and 
source of Nile, 88 

Diseases, 131 

Disintegration, 57 

Dobosa, 261 

Dorobo people, 84 

Drinks of Uganda, 140 

Dug-out canoes, 97 

E 

East Africa, 28, 31, 44, 45, 49 

East African Colony, 44, 50, 
53 

East African Empire, 21, 55 

East African Highlands, 40, 41, 
45, 50 

East African trade, 22 

East Coast slave-trade, 63 

East Indian Empire, 27 

Education dangers, 204 

Education of the negro, 56, 58, 
204 

Education versus Evangelisa- 
tion, 204 

Egypt, 23 



Eldoma Ravine, 85 

Emin Pasha, 189 

England's obligations inUganda, 

169 
EngUsh Cathedral, the, 181 
English Church, the, 43 
English hospital, 27 
Entebbe, 113, 175 
Equatorial Africa, 27 
Etna, 23 
Euphorbia, 34 
EvU customs, 337-341 
Evil spirits, 350 
Excommunication, 215 
Executive Committee, C.M.S., 

217 



Faith in the Gospel, 213 

Famine, 108, 239 

Father Kirk, 306 

Father Spere, 306 

Fibre cultivation, 33, 118 

Fleas, 130 

Fhes, 130 

Fly, the tsetse, 106 

France, Southern, 23 

French Ecclesiastical coup, 

181 
French Roman Catholic Mission, 

180 
French shipping Une, 22 
Frere, Sir Bartle, 88 
Frere Town, 32, 88, 90 
Frogs, 130 
Frontier of German East Africa, 

117 
Fruit, 44 



366 



Index 



G 

Gallas, 37 

Gang people, 86 

Geographical enterprise of 

C.M.S., 88 
German enterprise, 22 
German Equatorial Africa, 27 
German frontier, 117 
German ships, 22 
Giryama country, 64, 88 
Glossina palpalis, the, 106 
Gondokoro, 117 
Gordon, Rev. C, 144 
Government house, 27 
Governor of British East Africa, 

43, 45, 46, 49 
Grammar in Lumasaba, 319 
Grant, the explorer, 135 
Grant, W. and T., 233 
Great " fault," the, 80 
Great Spirit, the, 350 
Ground nuts, 117 
Gulf of Suez, 23 

H 

Hsemoglobinuric fever, 131-132 
Ham Mukasa, 120, 224 
Hamitic people, 140 
Hannington, Bishop, 144, 188, 

228, 239 
Hartebeeste, 37 
Headquarters of C.M.S. Uganda 

Mission, 182 
Headquarters of railway, 40 
Hemp smoking, 337 
Highlands, East African, 40, 41, 

45, 50, 87 
High School, 192, 207 



Holden, Mr. W., 306, 315 

Holy Communion, questions 

relating to, 214 
Holy Land, 23 
Hornets, 130 

Hospital, C.M.S., 104, 134, 188 
Houses, 139, 153 
Housing problem, 210 
Hubbard, Rev. E., 188 
Hut-tax, 57, 239, 360 



Iganga, 233 

Imperial British East Africa 

Company, 89, 146 
India, 105 
Indian coolies, 88 
Indian Ocean, 22, 94 
Indian Penal Code, 161 
Indian, the, 54, 55 
Insect life, 131 
Intermingling of Aryan and 

Negro, 55 
Irrigation, 37 
Ishmael's propensities, 63 
Islanders of Sese, 95 
Islands of Buvuma, 97 



Jigger, the, 105, 130 
Jinja, 232, 309 

Johnston, Sir H. H., 54, 151, 
203, 353 



Kampala, 125 
Kamuli, 242 



Index 



367 



Kapili Plains, 39 

Katikiro of Uganda, 120, 

158 
Kavirondo, 84, 86, 95 
Kavirondo, Bantu, 64, 86 
Kenya, Mount, 68, 88 
Kibwezi, 89 
Kidong Kiver, 68 
Kikuyu, 68, 80, 88 
Kilima-Njaro, 37 
Kilindini harbour, 27, 28-31 
Kimaru people, 255 
King David, 146, 154 
King Mtesa, 186 
King Mwanga's rebellion, 145 
King's war drum, 137 
Kirk, Father, 306 
Kisi, 86 
Kisumu, 84, 85, 87, 92, 114, 

232 
Koch, Professor, 107 
Kokolyo, 249, 259 
Koran, the, 33 
Koromojo, 255, 260 
Kumi, 256 

Kyagwe, 98, 118, 141, 224 
Kyoga, Lake, 86, 97, 232, 242- 

259 



Labour problem in Uganda, 161- 

172 
Lado Enclave, 189 
Lake Albert, 97, 260 
Lake Albert Edward, 97 
Lake Kyoga, 86, 97, 232, 242- 

259 
Lake Rudolph, 172, 250, 260 



Lake Salisbury or Bisiaa, 249, 

259 
Lake steamers, 98-101 
Lake Tanganyika, 105 
Lake Victoria, 60, 80, 92-110, 

226 
Land distribution, 169 
Land settlements, 40-59 
Language, Bantu, 63 
Language difficulties, 317 
Lice, 130 
Lions, 27, 37, 120 
Liverpool School of Tropical 

Medicine, 107 
Lossogurti Escarpment, 68 
Luba of Usoga, 189 
Lugard, 189 

Lumasaba Grammar, 319 
Lumbwa, 84, 86 
Lur people, 86 

M 

Mabira Forest Company, 118 
Macdonald, Captain, 188 
Macdonald, General Sir J. C. E., 

189 
Mackay, Alexander, 142 
Makindu, 39 
Making bark cloth, 137 
Malaria, 128 
Manimani, 260, 265 
Marseilles, 22 
Masaba, 24, 223, 309 
Masai, 69, 71-79, 80, 84 
Mau Escarpment, 83, 87 
Mbale, 359 

McNamara, Miss, 315 
Medicine-men, 350 



368 



Index 



Mengo, 24, 114, 119, 150, 175 
Mengo High School, 192 
Meridional Rift, 80 
Messina, 22 
Mice, 130 

Mill Hill Roman Catholic Mis- 
sion, 180 
Mimosa scrub, 34 
Miro, 256 
Missions, 56, 196 
Missions, influence and work of, 

196-218 
Mohammedan interpreters, 91 
Mohammedan traders and mis- 
sionaries, 91 
Mohammedanism, 31, 32 
Mohammedanism, superficial, 

33 
Mombasa, 22, 23-28, 37, 39, 40, 

43, 55, 60 
Mombasa native to\vn, 31 
Mosquito nets, 128 
Mosquito, the, 97, 128 
Mountains of the Moon, 117, 

197 
Mount Debasian, 249, 259 
Mount Elgon, 86, 182, 223, 242, 

265, 294 
Mount Moroto, 260 
Mount Teso, 249 
Mpologoma River, 242, 250 
Mtesa, King of Uganda, 136 
Mukasa, Ham, 120, 224 
Mukono, 120 
Mumia's, 223 
Munyonyo, 175 
Mutilation, 141 

Mwanga, King of Uganda, 141, 
154 



N 

Naigombwa River, 250 

Nairobi, 39, 40, 43, 44, 46, 49, 
53, 69, 80, 83 

Nakasero, 180 

Nandi, 84, 85, 86 

Nandi warriors, 85 

Namirembe, 184 

Naples, 22 

Napoleon Gulf, 227, 232 

Nassa, 182 

Native and white problems, 40- 
59 

Native, the, 60-79 

Negro and Aryan intermingling, 
55 

Negro organisation and educa- 
tion, 56-59 

Newspapers in Uganda, 179 

Nile, the, 224, 226 

Nilotic peoples, 86, 225, 260 

Nominal Christianity, 90 

Nsambya, 180 

Numbers, danger of, 198 

Nyenga, 226 

O 

Oasis, an, 135 

Obligations of England, 169 
Offerings to evil spirits, 350 
Old Mombasa, 27 
Organisation of Negro, 56 
Ostrich, 37 



Pagan Africans, 67 

Palace of Bishop Tucker, 195 



Index 



369 



Paradise of snakes, &c., 27 
Parasites, 53 
Parliament House, 157 
Pax Britannica, 107, 152 
Pemba, 31 

Penal Code, Indian, 161 
Persecution, 143 
Pilgrim, Miss, 312 
Pilkington, 188 
Poll-tax, 57 
Polygamy, 251 
Porterage, 150 
Port Florence, 85, 223 
Port of Uganda, 113 
Port Said, 23 
Portuguese fort, 24 

Portuguese, the, 63 
Postmaster-General, 27 

Preaching in Uganda, 184 

Price, Rev. W. S., 88 

Prime Minister of Uganda, 120, 
158 

Primitive simplicity, 21 

Primitive tribes, 64 

Printing in Uganda, 178 

Progress in Uganda, 153 

Prostrating heat, 23 

Punitive expeditions, 861 



K 

Eabai, 88, 90 

Railway headquarters, 40 

Railway, Uganda, 28, 32, 37, 40, 

64, 87, 98, 150, 156 
Rats, 130 

Ravine, the Eldoma, 85 
Rebellion of King Mwanga, 

145 



Rebellion of Soudanese soldiers, 
189 

Regents in Uganda, 157 

Relapsing fever, 129 

Rendle, Dr., 125 

Rest-houses, 129 

Rhinoceri, 37, 38 

Rice cultivation, 33 

Right Hon. "Winston Churchill, 
171 

Ripon Falls, 101, 109, 226 

Ripon Falls Barrage, 109 

River Mpologoma, 242 

River Naigombwa, 250 

River Nile, 224, 226 

Road-making in Uganda, 166 

Roads, 114, 115, 166 

Roman CathoUcism, 181 

Roman Catholicism and rene- 
gade Anglicans, 215 

Roman Catholic chapel, 43 

Roman Catholic Missions, 180 

Roman CathoUc nonconformity, 
181 

Rubber cultivation, 33, 118 

Rudolph, Lake, 172, 250 
Ruwenzori Mountains, 260 



Sacrifices, 357 

St. Joseph's Roman Catholic 

Mission, 180 
Salisbury, Lake, 249, 259 
Samwili Kangawo, 224 
School, Mengo High, 192 
Scotch Mission, 89 
Scott, killed by rebels, 189 
Segregation camps, 108 



370 



Index 



Self-support, 212 

Selim Bey, 189 

Semei Kakungulu, 239, 358 

Serere, 250 

Sese Islands and people, 95-98 

Settlers, 45, 119 

SeycheUe Islands, 145 

Seyidie, 33 

Sheep, 44 

Skeens, 231 

Slave trade, 63 

Sleeping sickness, 98-109 

Sleeping sickness fly, 106-109 

Smoking of Indian hemp, 337 

Snakes, 130 

Somali country, 64 

Sotik, 86 

Soudanese rebellion, 189 

Specific Disease, 176, 202 

Speke the explorer, 135 

Spere, Father, 306 

Spicy breezes, 23 

Spiders, 130 

Spirillum fever, 129, 226 

Stanley, Sir H. M., 98, 136, 189 

Status of Slavery, 31 

Steamships on Lake Victoria, 

98, 101 
Strategic value of Uganda, 171 
Stromboli, 23 
Suez Canal, 23 
Sultan of Zanzibar, 31 
Swahili porter, 24 



Taita, 88 
Tanaland, 33 
Tana Eiver 64 



Tanganyika, Lake, 105 

Taru Desert, 34 

Taveta, 88 

Tax Britannica, 152 

Taxation and development, 88 

Technical instruction, 167 

Tegetha, 260 

Tepeth, 260 

Teso, 241 

Teso Mountain, 249 

Thatching, 139 

Thieves, 235 

Things as they are, 21 

Thruston, Major, 189 

Tick fever, 129 

Toposa, 261 

Toro, 197, 217 

Transition, 34 

Translation work, 327 

Tropical Medicine School, 107 

Trypanosoma, 105-109 

Tsavo Eiver, 64 

Tucker, Bishop, 195, 228 

Tullock, Lieutenant, 105 

Turkana, 255-262 

U 

Uganda, 22-34, 110-227 
Uganda Chamber of Commerce, 

161 
Uganda Company, 176 
Uganda houses, 139 
Uganda Mission of the C.M.S., 

182 
Uganda newspapers, 179 
Uganda Railway, 28, 32, 37, 64, 

87, 98, 150, 166 
Uganda Eailway terminus, 85 



Ind 



ex 



371 



Uganda Rebellion, 189 

Ugaya, 86 

Ukamba, 38, 88 

Ukidi, 241 

Unyoro, 217, 232 

Usoga, 93, 97, 101, 119, 217, 241 



Vaughan, Cardinal, 180 

Vegetables, 44 

Venereal disease in Uganda, 

202 
Vesuvius, 23 
Victoria Lake, 60, 80, 92-110, 

225 
Visitors, not settlers, 55 
Voi, 37, 38 

W 

Wadelai, 182 
Wagiryama, 64 
Wakamba, 64, 67, 68 
Wakikuyu, 68, 69, 71 



Walker, Archdeacon, 144 

Wandorobo, 84 

Wanyika, the, 34, 64 

Wapokomo people, 64 

War drum, 137 

Wasps, 130 

Wataita people, 37 

West Africa, 130 

White fathers, 180 

Wildebeeste, 37 

Williams, Captain, 98 

Wilson, George, Esq., C.B., 165 

WUson, killed by rebels, 189 

Wilson, Eev. A., 231 

Witchcraft, 345 

Work of Church and State, 209 

Wrong ideas of permanence, 

211 
Wrong system in Uganda, 166 



Z 



Zanzibar, 31, 32 
Zanzibar, Sultan of, 31 
Zebra, 37 



f be Cjrcsbitm ^rtss, 

UN WIN BROTHERS, LIMITED, 
WOKING AND LONDON. 



CLASSIFIED CATALOGUE 



OF 



T. FISHER UNWIN'S 

PUBLICATIONS. 



CONTENTS. 



I.— INDEX of Authors, some Illustrators and Editors 

II._IXDEX in order of Titles, including a list of Mr. Unwin's various series 
of books 

in.— CATALOGUE, classified under the following subject-headings :— 

1. Literary History 

2. Poetry and the Drama 

3. Novels, Humorous Works, Short Stories, & 

4. Essays, Criticisms, Philosophy, &c 

5. Art and Music 

6. Biography, Memoirs, Correspondence, &c.. 

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9. Geography, Travel, Mountaineering, &c. . 

10. Natural History, &c 

11. Religion and Education 

12. Domestic Literature 

13. Books for Children 

14. Varia 

15. " The New Irish Library ■• "The Welsh Library" and 

International Review " 



'The 



1—2 

3—7 
8-32 

33—34 
35—37 
38-46 
47—59 
59-66 
66—74 

74—77 
77-80 
81—82 
82-85 
85- 87 

87 



}P/dAJO 



-«o 



dVllWI^U MBHaiH .1 



Book Buyers are requested to order any volumes th^y 
may require from their bookseller . On receipt of a Post- 
card^ Mr. Fisher Unwin wi'l be pleased to furnish the 
address of the nearest local bookseller where tlie works 
detailed in this list mav be inspected. 

Should any difficulty arise^ the Publisher will be happy 
to forward anv book in the list to any country in the Postal 
Union, on receipt of the price marked and a sufficient sum 
to cover postage, together with full Postal Address. Any 
amount fortvarded in excess will be returned to the sender. 

Remittances may be made by Cheque, draft on LondjUy 
Alone Y Orders, or Stamps. 



After reading this Catalogue, kind'y pass it on to some 
book-buying friend, or send an address to which this or 
future editions may be sent. 



1909. 



INDEX ot AUTHORS, some ILLUSTRATORS, and EDITORS. iii 



INDEX of AUTHORS, some 
ILLUSTRATORS, and EDITORS. 



PAGE 

Abrahams, Israel i, 79 

Adam, Mme. Edmond 38 ! 

Adams, Arthur H.' 8 

Adams, Francis 66 

Adams, W. Auguste 3 

Aesop 83 

Aho, Juhaai 8 | 

Albright, Mrs. W. A 59 

Alexander, Mrs 8, 85 

Alien 8 

Allardyce, Paul 77 

Amber, Miles 8 

Andreief, Leonidas 8 1 

Andrews, Katherine 8 , 

Arbuthnot, Sir A. J 39 ' 

Archer, Laura M. Palmer .... 8 

Archer, T. A 47 1 

Archer, William 5 

Armstrong, I.J 8 

Arnold, A. S 39 

Aronson, V. R 59 

Askew, Alice and Claude . .8, 87 

Austin, Mrs. Sarah 43 

Axon, William E. A 60 

Bacheller, Irving 9 

Badham.F. P 77 

Bailey, E. E. J i 

Baillie-Saunders, Margaret. . . 9 

Baker, Ernest, A 66 

Baker, H. Barton 9 

Baker, James 9 

Bamford 59 

Banfield, E.J 66 

Baring-Gould, S 47 

Barlow, J ane g 

Bamett, Canon 59 

Barr, Amelia E 9, 85 

Barr, Walter 10 

Barry, William 10, 47 

Barth, Dr. Theodor 60 

Bartram, George 10 

Basile, Giambattista 82 

Bastian, H. Charlton 74 

Bateson, Mary 47 

Batey, John.. 85 

Bealby , J . T 10 

Bearne, Catherine A 47 

Beauclerk, Lady Diana 35 

Beaumont, Francis 5 

Beavan, Arthur Hr 74 

Beazley, C. Raymond 39 

Becke, Louis 10, 43 

Beckman, Ernest 82, 83 

Beckworth. James P 46 

Bcprs. Henry A 1 

B'-ll. Robert 74 

Bellermann, Ludwig 7 

Benjamin, S. G. W 47 

Benson, Robert Hugh 77 

Bentley, Arthur F 59 



de Benyowsky, Count 

Bemhard, Oscar 

Berry, T. W 77, 

Besant, Annie 

Bigelow, John 

Biiidloss, Harold 

Birch , VValter de Gray 

Blacker, J. F 

Blake, Bass 

Blake, B. C 

Blind, Mathilde 3, 

Bliss, Rev. Edwin M 

Blond {See Le Blond). 

Bloom, J . Harvey 

Blount. Mrs. George 

Blunt, Wiilrid Scawen ....48, 

Blyth, Edmond Kell 

Bodkin, M. McDonnell 

Boiisicr, Gaston 

Boland, Mary A 

Bolsche Wilhelm 

Bolt, Ben 

Bon (5« Le Bon). 

Bond. J . A Walpole- 

Bonner, Hypathia Bradlaugh 

Booth, Eva Gore 

Boulger, Demetrius C 

Bourget, Paul 

Bourinot, Sir John G 

Bousset, W 

Boutmy, Emi!e 

BowacK, William Mitchell . . . 

Bowi-n, Ivor 

Bowcn-Rowlands, Lilian . . . . 

Bowles, Thomas Gibson 

BovalK G. E 74,48, 

Boyesen, Prof. Hjalmar H. . . . 

Bmdlev, Henry 

Brainerd, E. H 

Brav, Reginald A 60, 

Br. da, G. H 

Bren tano 

Brcreton, Austin 

Bridgett, T. E 

Bright, Allan H 

Bricthtwen, Mrs 38, 

Broda, Rodolphe 

Bromley. A. W 

Brooke, ?>Iagdalene 

Brooke. Rev. Stopford A 

Brookes, L. Elliott 

Brookfield, Arthur 

Brooks, Geraldine 

Brown, Charles Reynolds 60, 

Brown, Francis 

i Brown, Madox 

Browne, Prof. Edw. G 

Browne, Gordon 

Browne, Haji A 

Browne, H. -Morg.-.a 

i Bruce, Mary L 



Bruckner, A 

Brunetiere, Ferdinand 

Buchanan, A. J 

Buchanan, Alfred . . . . 
Buchanan, Robert . . . . 

Buckmaster, J . C 

Buel, Clarence C 

Bulfin, W 

BuUen, Frank T 

Bume-Jones, Edward . 

Bums, John 

Bums, Robert 

Burrard, W. Dutton . . 

Burton, E. de Witt 

Butler, Lewis 

Butler, W. F 

Bj'les, Rev. John 

Byrde, Margaretta . . . . 
Byron, Lord 



67 



60 I 
48 
67 
II 

el 
3 
II 
77 
48 
48 
82 



70 



Cable, G. W 46 

Cadbury, Edward 60 

Caddick, Helen 67 

Caird, Lindsay H 85 

Caird, Mona 67 

Callahan, James Horton 60 

Cameron, V. Lovett 46 

Campbell, R. J 77 

Campbell, Mrs. Vere 12 

Canning, Albert S. G. i 

Capes, Bernard 4 

Capuana, Luigi 83 

Carey, Charles 12 

Carducci, Giosu^ 4 

Carlile, W. and Victor W 60 

Carroll, Lewis 35 

Carse, Roland 48, 53 

Cartwright, Mrs. Edward .... 12 

Caryl, Valentine 12 

Cavlev, George John 67 

Cayley-Webstcr, H 72 

de Cervantes, Miguel 13 

Cesaresco, Countess Martin- 

engo 34. 39, 49. 67, 75 

Chamberlain, Charles J 75 

Chambers, R. W 12 

Chapman, George 5 

Chesson, Nora 12 

Chevalier, Albert 39 

Choraley.C.H 12 

Chovce, James 46 

Chrichfiold, G^-orge W 49 

Christv, Robert 33 

Church, Prof. Alfred J 49 

Clare, Austin 12 

Clark., H. A 7 

Clayden, P.'W 49 

Cleeve, Lucas 12 

Clerigb, Arcluir 49 

Clifford, Hu?h 67 

Clifford, Mrs. W. K 13 



T. FISHER UNWIN'S PUBLICATIONS. 



INDEX of AUTHORS, some ILLUSTRATORS, and EDITORS.-co;;W. 



PAGE 

Clyde, Constance 13 

Cobbleigh, Tom 13 

Cobclen, Richard 39, 60 

Cole, Timothy 35 

Coleridge, Lord 39, 49 

Collet, Collet Dobson 60 

Collingwood, S. D 35, 39 

Collodi,C 82, 83 

Cotnpton, Henry 46 

Congdon, Charles T 40 

Congreve, William 5 

Conrad, Joseph 13 

Conway, Sir William Martin . . 67 

Cooke, Frances E 83 

Coolidge, VV. A. B 67 

Copinger, W. A 4 9 

Corkran, Henriette 13 

Cornaby, W. A 67 

Cornish, Vaughan 67 

Costelloe, Ray 13 

Cotterell, Constance 13 

Coiirland'T, Alphonse 13 

Courtney, Leonard 60 

Cowper, William 4 

Cox, Harold 60, 6i 

Cox, Palmer 83 

Cox, Rev. Samuel 77 

Crampton, George 13 

Crawford, F. Marion 13 

de Crespigny, Mrs. Philip 

Champion 13 

Crockett, S. R 13 

Crompton, Henry 61 

Crottie, Julia M 14 

Cruikshank, George 82 

Cruso, H. A. A 4 



Dale,T.F 

Dalin, Talmage 

Dalton, Moray 

Dalziel, James 

Dana, Chas. A 

Danson, John Towne 

Daudet, Alphonse 82, 

Davenport, Arthur 

Davenport, Herbert Joseph.. 

Davids, T. W. Rhys 

Davidson, Augusta M. Camp- 
bell 

Davidson, Lillias Campbell. . . 

Davies, Mary 

Davis, Richard Harding .... 

Davis, Thomas 49, 

Dawson, W. Harbutt 

Dean, Mrs. Andrew 

Deasy, H. H. P 

Defoe, Daniel 82, 

von Degen 

Degenr r, Herman A. L 

Dekker, Thomas 

De la. Key, Mrs. General 

Dethridge, G. Olivia 

Dew-Smith, Mrs 

Dewsnup, Ernest R 

Dickeson, Alfred 

Dietrich, Max 

Dietzcl, H 

Dieulafoy, Marcel Augusta . . . 

Digby, William 

Dillon, E. J 

Dittrich, Hennann 35, 

Dodge, Walter Phelps 39, 49, 

Douglas, Sir George 

Douglas, Prof. R. K 

Dowie, Menie Muriel 

Drachman, Holger 

Drosines, Georgios. . . .14, 82, 
Drury, Robert 



46 



PAGE 

Drydeii, Jolm 5 

Dii'bi, H 67 

Duff, J.Wight I 

Duffy, Bella 49 

DuSy, Sir Chas. Gavan 

33. 39. 40, 49. 87 

Duhamel, H 67 

Du Maurier 36 

Dumillo, Alice 14 

Dunckley, Henry 60 

Dundas, Christian 14 

Diintzer, Heinrich 40 

Dutt. Romesh 14 

Dutt, W. A 68 

Dyer, John 4 

van Dyke, John C 35 

Dyke, Watson 14 

Eastwick, Robert W 46 

von Ebner-Eschenbach, Marie 14 

Ecliegaray, Don Jos6 4 

Eckcnstein, Oscar 68 

Edwards, Owen M 49, 87 

van Eeden, F 14 

Egerton, Hugh E 43 

Eivind, R 83 

Elias, Frank 61 

Eliot, George 68 

Elizabeth of England, Prin- 
cess 40 

Ellenberger, Professor 35 

Elliott. Ebenezer 61 

Ellis, Havelock 56 

Elphinstone, Lady 78 

Elster, Ernst 4 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo 40 

Enock, C. Reginald 68 

Erskine, Mrs. Steuart 35 

Escott, T. H. S 49, 61 

Evan?;, Howard 42 

Evans, S. Hope 83 

Evans, Thomas W 40 

Evans, W. Sandford 85 

Ewald, Alex. C 5 

Eyre-Todd, George 44 

Faguet, Eniilo i 

F.-3lconer, Lanoe 14 

Farge (.See La Farge). 

Farquhar, George 5 

Farrer. J. A 14 

Farrow, G. E 84 

Fawcett, Mrs. Henry 65 

Fegan, Bertie '. 86 

Ferguson, Sir Samuel. ... 14, 87 

Ferri, Prof. Enrico 33 

Field, Michael 4 

Findlay, Frederick R. N 68 

Fishor, Harrison 35 

Fisher, Lala 11 

Fitz-Gerald,B.A C8 

Fitzgerald, Percy. .15, 35,41, 50 

Fitzmaurice-KcUy, J 40 

Flammarion, Camille 75 

Fletcher, J. S 15 

Fletcher. John 5 

Flowerdcw, Herbert 15 

Fogazzaro, Antonio 15 

Ford, Douglas 44 

Ford, John 5 

Ford, Mary 83 

Foreman, John 68 

Forrest, J. Dorsey 50 

Forrest, R. E 15 

Forster, L. M 81 

Foster, George Burman 78 

Foster, J. J 35, 50 

Foster, Sir Michael 38 



PAGE 

Frapan, He.... 15 

Eraser, Join. 15 

Frazer, R. \\ i, 50 

Frederic, Harold 15 

Freeman, Prof. E. A 50 

French, Henry Willard 15 

Fuller, Margaret 40 

Fumess, Annette 15 

Furniss, Harry 36 

Gaggin, John 68 

Gambier, J . W 40 

Ganconagh (W. B. Yeats) .... 24 

Gannon, John P 50 

Gardiner, A. G 62 

Gardiner, J. H 78 

Gardner, W. J 50 

Gamett, Richard 4, 45 

Gebuza 61 

Geen, Philip 85 

George, E. A 78 

Gertrude, /,unt 82 

Gibb, E. J. W 52 

" Gil" 13 

Gilman, Arthur 50, 52 

Gilraan, Daniel Coit 78 

Gissing, George 13 

Glover, John R 42 

Goethe, W 4 

Gomme, G. Lawrence ....50, 6i 

Goodenough, Rev. G 86 

Gordon, Charles 50 

Gordon, H. Laing 44 

Gordon, Lady Duff 43 

Gordon, William Clark 33 

Gorky, Maxim 15 

Gosse, Edmund 6 

Gould, F. Carruthers 61, 84 

Gould, G. M 40 

Grace, R. W , 84 

Graham, R. B. Cunninghame . 68 

Grant, Daniel 62 

Graves, Alfred Perceval. . .43, 87 

Gray, E. Conder 40 

Gray, Thomas 50, 73 

Greeley, Horace 40 

Green, Anna Katherine 16 

Greene, Robert 5' 

Gregory, Lady 34 

Gribble, Francis 68 

Grieve, Ed. B 86 

Griffiths, D.R 16 

Grifiths, Arthur 16, 50 

Guarracino, Beatrice 81 

Guest, Lady Charlotte 16, 87 

Guyer, Michael F 75 

Gwynn, Stephen 36 

Gyp 16 

Hackwood, F. W 86 

Haldane, Richrad Burton 62 

Hale, Susan 50 

Hales, A. G 16 

Hall, Charles Cuthbert 78 

Hall, Moreton 4 

Hall, R.N 68 

Halperine-Kaminski, H 46 

Hamilton, Cosmo 15 

Hamilton, Lord Ernest 14 

Hannah, J. E 50 

Hardic, J. Keir 65 

Harding, Ellison 15 

Hardy, Rev. E. J. 

16, 41, 68, 78, 81, 87 

Harland. Marian 81 

Harper, S. Eccleston 32 

Harper, William Rainy 78 

Harrison, Mrs. fjurton 16 



T. FISHER UNWIN'S PUBLICATIONS. 



INDEX of AUTHORS, some ILLUSTRATORS, and EDITORS, -co;//^/. v 



PAGE 

Harrison, Mrs. Darent i6 

Harrison, Jane E 36 

Harting.J.E 75 

Harvie-Brown, J . A 75 

Hasen, Ch. Downer 50 

Hasler, G 67 

Hatfield, Henry Rand S6 

Hauff, Wilhelm 83 

Hawliesworth, Alfred 69 

Hav, John 42 

Hay, William 16 

Hayden, Arthur 36 

Heine, Heinrich 4 

Heinemann, Karl 4 

Hemaiis, Mrs 87 

Hennessey, J . W 83 

Henshaw, Julia W 16 

Henson, H. Hensley 78 

Henty, G. A 16, 85 

Herbert, George 4, 78, 87 

Herford, C. H 5 

Herrick, Christine Terhune ... 81 

Herring, Frances E 69 

Hertz, Gerald Berkeley 50 

Hertz-Garten, Theodor 16 

Heywood, Thomas 5 

Heywood, William 69 

Hicks, John W 86 

Hill, Edmund L 4 

Hill, Geoffry 78 

Hill, George Birkbeck 43 

Hill, Robert T 69 

Hindlip, Lord 69 

Hinkson, H. A I7 

Hirst, Francis W 62 

Hobbes, John OUver ..4, 17, 69 

Hobhouse, L. T 62 

Hobson, J . A 63, 69 

Hocking, Silas K 17 

Hodgson, W. B 62 

Hoffmann, E. T. A 83 

Hogan, James Francis 62 

Holdsworth, Annie E 17 

Holmes, Timothy 38 

Holyoake, George Jacob 41 62. 86 

Honeyman.C. vanDoren . . .. 69 

Hornbv, F. M 33 

Home.H.P 6 

Homiman, Roy 18 

Horridge, Frank 41 

Horrwitz. Ernest i 

Horton, R.F 78 

Hosmer, Prof. James K 50 

Houghton, Louis Seymore. .. . 50 

Howard, George Elliott. .51, 78 

Howe, Frederic C 62 

Howell, George 62 

Huefier, FordH 62,83 

Hudson, W. H 18 

Hug, Lina "ii 

Hugessen, Knatchbull 83 

Hulbert, H. B ^^ 

Hulme, F. E 75 

Hume, Martin A. S. ..43, 51, 72 

Humphrey, Frank Pope 18 

Humphrey, Mrs 18, 81 

Hungerford, Mrs 18 

Hyde, Douglas 2, 5, 78, 87 

Ibsen, Henrik 5 

Indicus 69 

Ingersoll, Ernest 75 

Iron, Ralph (Olive Schreiner). 26 

Irving, Edward 75 

Irving, Fanny Belle 18, 85 

Irwin, H. C 18 

James, David H 51 



PACK 

J ane, L. Cecil 51 

Japp, Alex. H 41 

J aveile, Emile 69 

Jay, Harriett 38 

Jebb, Louisa 69 

Jeffery, Walter 11, 18, 43 

Jenkins, Rhys 86 

Jenks, Edward 51 

Jennings, Edward W 18 

Jephson, Henry 02 

Jephson, Julie 38 

Jepson, Edgar 18, 84, 87 

Jernigan,T. R 62 

Jerningham, Sir Hubert 18 

Jessopp, Augustus ... .18, 33, 51 

Jewett, Sarah Orne 51 

Johnson, Robert U 51 

Johnson, T. Broadwood 69 

Jones, David Brynmot 51 

Jones, H. Stuart 51 

Jones, W. Lewis 2 

Jonson, Ben 5 

Jusserand, J. J 2, 33, 52 

de Kantzow, Alfred 3 

Keary, C. F 18 

Keene, Charles 37 

Keller, Gottfried 18 

Kelly, J.D.J 52 

Kempster, Aquila 18 

Kerr, S. Parnell 69 

Kettle, Rose Mackenzie ..19, 85 

Kiesow, E. L 85 

Kildare, Owen 19 

King, Clarence 69 

King, Irving 78 

King, Joseph 62 

King, Richard Ashe 44, 87 

Kingsford, C. L 47 

Kinross, Albert ig 

Kitson, Arthur 63 

Knight, William 39 

Ko, Ta Sein 78 

Kolokorones, Theodore 46 

Korolenko, V 19 

Kroeker, Kate Freiligrath . . 83 

Kruger, Paul 41 

Kruger, Gustav 78 

Kurz, Louis 67 

La Farge 69 

Lambe, J . Lawrence 19 

Landon, Mary 19 

Lane, Ralph 63 

Lane-Poole, Stanley 52 

Langbridge, Rosamond 19 

Langland, William 2 

Latane, John H 52, 63 

Lanyon, H. St. Martin 19 

Laurenson, Arthur 41 

Laverton, Mrs. H. S 19 

Law, Alice 3 

Lawless, Emily 33 

Lawson, Sir Wilfrid 61 

Lawton, Frederick 36 42 

Lear, Edward 45 

Le Blond, Mrs. Aubrey 69, 70 

Lebon, Andre 52 

Le Bon, Gustave 33 

Lee, Vernon 19. 33i 52 

Lee-Hamilton, Eugene 19 

Legge, Helen Edith 36 

Leigh, M. Cordelia 79 

Leland Ch. G. {" Breitmann ") 19 

T.entheric, Charles 70 

Leroy-Beaulieu, P 60 

Levasseur, R 63 

Levy, Amy 5 

Lewis, Frank C. 20 



P.\GE. 

Leyds, W.J 52 

LiddoU, Arthur R 85 

Lilly, W. S 52 

Litta, Duke 20 

Little, A. G 52 

Little, Mrs. Archibald . . . .2C, 70 

Lloyd, Albert B 70 

Lloyd, H. D 63 

Lloyd, Wallace 20 

Locke, James 20 

Loeb, Jacques 75 

Lombroso, Prof. C 34 

Louergan, W. F 5-2 

Lord, Walter Freweu 42 

Lorraine, Rupert 20 

Low, Sidney 63 

Lowes, Mrs 3& 

Lucas, Alice 79 

Lumsden, James 70 

Lunn, Henry S 63 

Lynch, E. M 20, 87 

Lyons, A. Neil 20 

Lyons. Albert E 20 

Lyttelton, Edith 5 

Mac, J 70 

McAulay, Allan 20 

MacBride, MacKenzie 20 

McCarthy, Justin 42,52 

McClelland, J 63 

McCormick, A. D 67 

MacDermott, Martin 34, 87 

MacDonagh, Michael . .39, 40, 87 

Macdonald, Alexander 70 

Macdonald, George 20 

Macdonald, Leila 5 

Macdonald, Robert 84 

von Mach, Richard 63 

Mcllraith, J. R 58 

Mcllwraith, J.N 83 

McKendrick, John G 41 

Mackintosh, C. W 39 

Mackintosh, John 53 

McMahan, A. Benneson 7° 

McManus, Blanche 84 

MacManus, James 20 

McManus, L 20 

Macphail, Andrew 79 

Macy, J esse 63 

Maddi-ion, F 42 

Maguay, Sir William 20 

Mahaffy, Prof. J. P 53 

Malet, Lucas 34 

Mallet, Sir Louis 60, 63 66 

Mallik, Manmath C 34. 7o 

Mann, Mary E 21,87 

Marble, Annie Russell 2 

Mario, Jessie White 44. 53 

Mark, H. Thiselton 79 

Marlowe, Christopher 6 

Marquis, T.G 21 

Marsh, Richard 21 

Marshall, Thomas 34 

Martin, Alfred J 79 

Martyn, Edward 21 

Martyn, Ethel K 33 

Mason, Eugen 5 

Maspero, G 53 

Massey, Gerald 53 

Massinger, Philip 6 

Massingham, H. W 63 

Masson, Gustave 53 

Masterman, C. F. G 34. 62 

Mathews, Shailer 77. 79 

Maude, Edwin 42 

Maugham, W. Somerset 21 

Maurice, C. Edmund 53 

du Maurier, G 36 



T. FISHER UNWIN'S PUBLICATIONS. 



INDEX of AUTHORS, some ILLUSTRATORS, and EDITORS.— cuhW. 



May ne, E Ihel Colbura 21 

Mazzauti, C 83 

Mazzini, Joseph 79 

Meade, Mrs. L.T 21,85 

Meakin, Budgett 63 

Meirion, Ellinor zi 

Mencken, Henry L 34 

Middleton, Thomas 6 

Mikoulitch, V 2 



PAGi. PAGK 

Oman, fohn Campbell 79 

Omondi'G. W. T 22 

Oppeaheim, A. 1 75 

Orczy, Baroness 22 

Orsi, Prof Fietro 54 

Otway, Thomas 6 

Ouida 22 

Oiithwaite, R. M 12 

Owen, Charles 22 



Milford, L. S 53 k „ ^ 

Miliar,;. H 2 I Page, H. A 43 

Miller, Frank Justus 6 Paget, Stephen 41 

Miller, WiUiam 53. 70 Pain, Barry 22, S7 

Mills B. J 2 ! Pais, Ettore 54 

Mills, Wesley 75 j Pankiiurst, Mrs 65 



Milne, James 

Milyoukov, Paul 63 

Minns, Ellis H i 

Mistral, FrM6ric 6 

MitcheU, S. Weir 21, 45 

Moffat, John Smith 42 

Molesworth, Mrs 83 

de Molinari, G 63 

de Montagnac, Noel 71 

Montagu, Lily H 21 

de Montalban, D. J. P 40 

Montgomery, K. L 21 

Moore, A. W 5 3 

Moore, George 6, 21, 34 



Parke, A. J 37 

Parker, Theodore 79 

Parsons, John Denham 76 

Paulsen, Friedrich 79 

Payne, J . F 44 

Permell, Charles 37 

Pennell, Ehzabeth Robins 36 

Pennell, Joseph 36 

de Pentheny, S 22 

Perrin, F 67 

Pflciderer, Otto 79 

Phelps, William Lyon 5 

Philpott, Hugh B 80 

Pidgin, Charles F 22 



Morel,'E. D.r 63 I Pike, G. Holden 39, 43. 45 

MorfiU.W.R 34|P!'«f>01j)'er^*^ 7& 

Morley, John 39 



Pink, Alfred 82 

Morts,'Mre" Fra^'. '. '. '. '. '. '. ". '. '. 83 Pinnock,Jamej 7i 

Morris, Lydia J 42 

Morrison, W. Douglas. ... 34. 54 

Moscheles, Felix 36 

Mosso, Angelo 36, 71 

Mottram, William 2 

Miigge, M. A 34 

Muir, Robert J ames 22 , 34 

Mummery, A. F 71 

Murray, David 54 

Murray, J . Clark 22 

Myron, A. Kiel 6 



Needham, Raymond 54 

Negri, Gaetano 79, 41, 54 

Nelson, Jane 22 

Nesbit, E 22, 84 

Newman, Edward 75 

Newton, John 38 

Nicholson, Brinsley 6 

Nicholson, F. C 5 

Nicholson, L 6 

Nicholson, R. A 2 

Nicolay, John G 42 

Nicolson, Arch. K 83 

Nietzsche, Friedrich 34 

Nieuwenkamp, W, O. J; 37 

Noble, M. A; 86 

Noel, Roden 6, 64 

Nordau, Max 36 

Norman, Henry 7i 

Norman-Neruda ... .., ... 7r 

Normyi 22 

Norris, W. B: 22 

Northcote, James 36 

Ober, F. A .'. 7i 

O'Brien, R. Barry 54. 64, 83 

O'Clerigh, Arthur 49 

O'Connor, T.P 38,54 

O'Donnfll, C. J 64 

Ogilv-ie, Will H 71 

O'Grady, Standish. . .22, 83, 87 
Olcott, Lucy 69 



Pinsent, EUen F 22 

Pinto, Ferd. Mendez 46 

Pitt-Lewis, G 41 

Playne, C. E 22 

Plowden, A. C 43 

de Polen, Narcisse 23 

Porter, C 7 

Potapenko, J 23 

Pott, F. L. Hawks 54 

Power, D'Arcy 41 

Praed, Mrs. Campbell ... .23, 43 

Presland, John 6 

Prichard, K. and Hesketh. ... 23 

Proal, Louis 34 

Prvce, G 23 

Pu'Uen-Burry, B 71 

Pusey, S. E. Bouverie 54 

Pyle, Howard 46 

de Quevedo, Francisco 37 

Quin, Ethel 71 

Ragozin, Z6naide A 54 

Ravenshear, A. F 64 

Ravenste-n, G. E 80 

Rawlinson, Professor George . 55 

Rea, Thomas 3 

Read, C. Stanford 82 

Reeth, Allan 25 

Reid, Forrest 25 

van Rensselaer, Mrs 37 

Rey, Guido 7' 

Rhead, G. WooUiscroft 37 

Rhys, Ernest S 

Rhys, John 55 

Richardson, Mrs. Aubrey 25 

Richardson, E 6 

Richings, Emily 25 

Richmond, Mrs 76 

Riley, Thomas 83 

Rita 25 

Robinson, A. Mary F 6 

Robinson, Paschal 80 



OUphant, Mrs 22, 83 Rt)che, James Jeffrey 46 

OUver, S: P 46 Rodgers, Joseph 7i 

Oman, C. W; C 54 Rodway, James 55, 72 



PAGK 

Rogers, Thorold 55, 64 

Ronald, Mary 82 

Roosevelt, Florence 25 

Roosevelt, Theodore 72 

Rosegarth, Brian 25 

Rosegger, Peter 25 

Ross, J anet 34 

Rossetti, Dante Gabriel 34 

Rowbotham, F. Jameson 25,55,84 
Rowlands, Lilian Bowen .... 25 

Rowsell, Mary 83 

Roxby, Percy M 40 

Rudaux, L 76 

Russell, Charles E 64 

Russell, Sir Edward 34 

Russell, George W. B 34 

Russell, T. Baron 34 

Russell, W. Clark 25 

Rutherford, Mark 25 

Ryley, J . Horton 40 

Ryves, K. C 26 

Sabatier, Paul 64, 80 

St. Hilaire, Philippe 26 

St. John, Sir Spencer 38 

Saintsbury, George 65 

Sala, George Augustus 26 

Sanders, Newton 26 

Santayana, George 7 

Sarnia 26 

Scaife, A. H 55 

Schallenberger, V 26 

Schiller, Friedrich 7 

von Schlicht, Baron 26 

Schmidt, Max 34 

Schmidt, Rudolph 76 

Schreiner, C. S. Cronwright . . 65 

Schreiner, Olive 26, 65 

SchuUer, Leo Sarkadi 7 

Scidmore, Eliza Ruhamah. .. 72 

Scotson-Clark 37 

Scott, Sir Walter 26 

Scott-Elliott, G. F 72 

Scully, W. C 26 

Searelle, Luscombe 72 

Seccombe, Thomas 43 

Segantini, Giovanni 37 

de Segovia, Pablo 37 

Seignobos, Charles 55 

Selleck, W. C 80 

SeUon, B. Mildred 84 

Sergeant, Lewis 55 

Service, Robert W 7 

Seymour, Frederick H. A 37 

Sej'mour, Major-General .... 72 

Seymour, Lady 43 

Shadwell, Thomas 6 

Shakespeare, William 7 

Shaw, Albert 65 

Sheehan. Rev. P. A 26 

Sheehy-Skefangton, F 43 

Shelley, Percy 7° 

Shenstone, Mildred 26 

Sheppard, Arthur 86 

Shervinton, Kathleen 44 

Sherwood, A. Curtis 26 

Shipp, John 46 

Shirley, James 6 

Sholl, Anna Maclure 26 

Shuckburgh, B. S 55 

Shuddick, R 86 

Sibley, N. W 65 

Sibree, James 72 

Sidney, Margaret 84 

Sigerson, George 7 

Sillard, Robert M 44 

Simpson, Wm. (Crimean S.) .. 24 

Small, Alb-on W 65 

Smith, F. Clifford 26 



T. FISHER UNWIN'S PUBLICATIONS. 



INDEX of AUTHORS, some ILLUSTRATOES and EDITORS.— cow W. vii 



PAG> 

Smith, F. E 65 

Smith, Gold'.vin 3, 40 

Smith, Isabella 2t. 

Smith, John 27 

Smith, Mrs. S. H 44 

Smith, T. Berkeley 72 

Smvth, Eleanor C 41 

Snell, F. C 76 

Snow, Isabel 27 

Sollas, W. J 76 

Somerset, Lady Henry 86 

Spelling, T. C 65 

Spence, Catherine 21 

Spicer, Howard 86 

Spinner, AUce 27 

Stacpoole. H. de Vera .... 27, 87 

Stanley, Edward 55 

Stead, Alfred 72 

Stead, Richard 51 

Stead, W. T 65 

Steele, Richard 6 

Stein, M. Aurel 72 

Stephens, H. Morse 55 

Stevens. Nina 27 

Steven), William Barnes (5 

Stillman, W.J 37 

Stokes Sir WilUam 44 

Stopes, Mrs. C. C 65 

Stott, Beatrice 27 

Strachey, John St. Loe....5, 76 

Strain, E. H 27 

Strasburger, Eduard 72 

Stratilesco, Tereza 72 

Street, Eugene E 72 

Stuart, C. Douglas 37 

Stubbs, Chas. WilUam 80 

Sturgis, Russell 37 

StutUrd, John 76 

Summers, Dorothy 27 

SutcUfle, Halliwell 27, 72 

Svenske, Anders 65 

Swain, A. B. H 6 

Swift. Dean 44 

Swift, Benjamin 27 

Swinburne, Algernon Charles. 
Symonds, John Adding ton . . 

Symonds, Margaret 72 

Symons, Arthur 6 

Synge, Mrs. Hamiltoa 27 



Tadema, L. .\lma 59 

Taine, Adolphe Hippoly te .... 72 

Tayler, F. Jenner 2 

Taylor, Austin 65 

Taylor, Charles M 72 

Taylor, Ellen 28 

Taylor, J. F 43, 87 

Taylor, Mrs. John 43 

Tetley , J . George 44 

Theal. Dr. G. McCall 57 

Thomas, Edward 87 

Thomas, Emile 58 

Thomas, W. Jonkyn 84 



Thomas, William J 

Thompson, Helen Bradford . . 

Thompson, H. Gordon 

Thring, Rev. Edward 

Thynne, R 

Tirebuck, William 

Todhunter, Dr. John 43, 

Tomson, Graham R 

Tourneur, Cyril 

Townsend, C. W 

lowushend, Dorothea 

Tregarthen, Greville 

Treheme, Phi!ip 28, 

Trelawny , Edward J 

Troubridge, Lady 

Trowbridge, W. R. H..28, 49, 

Truscott, L. Parry 

Tucker, Genevieve 

Tuin, W. J 

Tvmison, Joseph S 

TumbulI.A. R. R 

Turner, Ethel 28, 

Turner, Samuel 

Turguan, Joseph 

Twain, Mark 

Tweeddale, John 

Tynan, Katherine 

Tyrrell, George 



Unwin, A. Harold 76 

Unwin, Mrs. Cobden 62 

Usher, Sir Thomas 42 

Valentine, E. U 32 

Vambfery, Arminius 44, 46, 5S 

Vanbrugh, Sir John 

Vanderllp, Washington B 73 

Vaughan, Henry 87 

Veldheer, J.G 37 

Verga, Giovanni 32 

Verity, A. W 5 

Viele, Herman K 32 

Vierge, Daniel 37 

Villari, Lujgi 37, 65, 73 

ViUari, Pasquale 42, 43, 

Villars,P 46 

Villiers, Brougham 65 

Villiers, Chas. Pelham 60, 66 

Vincent, Arthur 45 

Voigt, J.C 58 

Volkhovsky, Felix S3 

Wasner, Charles 80 

Willis, Braithwaite 73 

Walpole, Sir Spencer 45 

Walpole-Bond, J. A 77 

Walsh, CM 7 

Ward, Mrs. Humphry 85 

W,ird,W.C ' 

Warden, Florence 32 

Warinj, H nry F 80 

Warren, .-Vlgernon 



Warry, C. King 32 

Watson, Aaron 45 

Watson, Joan 77 

W.-.tson, John Reay 32 

Watson, Margaret 32 

Watson, R. Spence 45 66 

Watson, WiUiam 7, 46 

Watts, Henry Edw 58 

Webster, Alexander 58 

Webster, H. Cayley 73 

Webster, J ohn 6 

Welby, Lord 60, 66 

Wellby, M.S 73 

Wells, H.G 32, 34 

Wendell, Barrett 3 

Werner, A 73 

Westell, W. Percival 77 

Whadcoat, Gordon Cuming . . 82 

Whistler, J. McNeiU 35 

Whi taker, Samuel F. G 7 

White, Hester 32 

White, Wilham 66 

Whitechurch, Victor L 32, 87 

Whitebouse, H. Rfmsen .... 38 

Whitman, Sidney 58 

Whitty, E. .M 59 

Wiel, Alathea =,<} 

Wilberforce. WiUjam 45 

Wilkens, Mary E :-,2 

Wilkinson, Kosmo 45 

Williams, Leonard 83 

WiUiams, Meta 83 

Williams, Rowland to 

Willamson, C. N 32, 87 

Williamson, W. H 32 

Willmore, Edward 7 

Wilson, Claude 73 

Wilton, Jos 32 

de Windt, Harry 73 

Witchell, Charles A 77 

Witt, Paul 32 

Wood, Katharine B 82 

Woods, H. C 73 

Worsley, A 80 

Workman, Fanny BuUock .... 73 
Workma n , William Hunter... 73 

Wright, Arnold 66 

Wright, H. K 35 

Wright, H. >r 73 

Wvcheriey, WiUiam 6 

W'ylwynne, Kythe 32 

Yeats, Jack B 83 

Yeats, W.B 7.32.34 

Yeigh, Kate Westlake 32 

Ytld, George 67, 73 

Ystridde, G 33 

Zimmermann, Jeremiah 73 

Zimmern, Ahce 59, 83, • 5 

Zimmern, Helen 59, 65 

Zurbriggen, Mattias 73 



T. FISHER UN WIN'S PUBLICATIONS. 



INDEX IN ORDER OF TITLES. 



/. ■-■ .■ X. 



INDEX ill order of Titles. 



PAGE 

Abbot (The) 26 

Abyssinia (Sport and Travel). 69 

Adam (Robert) Artist 35 

Addresses 34 

Adelpbi Library (The ) b 

Admiral Phillip 43 

AdmiralVeroon and the Navy 44 
Adula Alps of the Leopo'itine 

Range (The) 67 

Adventure Scries (The) .... 46 
Adventures of a Blockade 

Runner 46 

Adventures of a Supercargo. . lo 
Adventures of a Younger Son 46 

Adventures of a Dodo 84 

Adventures of Janics Sher- 

vin;»ton 10 

Adventures on the Roof of tlie 

World 69 

iEsop's Fables 83 

Aga Klirza (The.\dveuturesof) 18 

Age of the Earth (The) 76 

.^Alexander's Empire 53 

Alfred the Great 4 

Almayer's Folly 13 

Along thu Labrador Coast . . 72 

Alpine Memories 69 

Alps (My Climbs in the) 71 

Alps to the Andes (From the) 73 

Amazing Duko (The) 20 

Amaranthus 4 

Amaryllis 14 

Ambassador (The) 4 

America (Literary History of) 3 
American Civil War (Battles 

and Leaders of the) 51 

American Commerce 86 

American Literature (Heralds 

of) 2 

American Literature (Short 

History of) i 

American Opinion of the 

French Revolution 50 

American Railway Organiza- 
tion 61 

American Scholar (The) .... 79 
American Workman (The) ... 63 

Among the Man-Eaters 68 

Among the People of British 

Columbia 6g 

Among the Syringas 21 

Andts and the Amazon (The) 68 

Anglo-Americans 12 

Anglo- Italian Library (The ) . 66 

Anglo-Saxon (The) 48 

Animal Micrology 75 

Animals I Have Known 74 

Anne of Geicrstein 26 

Another Englishwoman's Love 

Letters 22 

Another View of Industrialism 59 
Another Wicked Woman .... 22 

Anthony Jasper ii 

Antiquary (The) 26 

Appreciation of the Bible 

(The New) bo 

Arabs (LiteraryHistory of the) 3 
Arcady : for Better for Worse 5 r 

Arden Massiter 10 

Aristotle's Theory of Conduct 34 
•Armaments (The Burden of). 60 

Anny Reform 62 

Art and Artists (On) 36 

Artist's Letters from Japan t9 



PAGE PAGE 

Artist Songs 6 Black Marv 20 



Arts of Design (The) 37 

As a Tree Falls 28 

! Ascent of Man (The) 74 

j As Others .See Us 14 

Aspirate (The) . 78 

Assisi (Golden Sayings of 

Giles of) 80 

Assyria 54 

Astronomy for Amateurs .... 75 
Atrocities of Justice under 

British Rule 59 

Augustus (Life and Times of). 55 

Australia (The Real) 67 

Australian Bushrangers (His- 
tory of) 48 

Australian Commonwealth 

(The) 58 

Australian Girlhood (My).... 43 
Australian Sheep and Wool. . 69 

Austria 58 

Autumn Leaves 19 

Avocat Pateliu (L') 7 

Awakening of a Race (The) . 59 

Baboo English 86 

Bachelor in .'Vicady (A) 27 

Bachelor Maid (A) 16 

Baiie's Strand (Ou) 7 

Baldwin 33 

Balfour's Pamphlet (A Reply) 61 

Balfourism 60 

Balkans (The) 53 

Bamford's Passages 59 

Barbara Cunlifle 27 

Barbarian Invasions in Italy. . 58 

Barbary Corsairs (The; 52 

Bards of Gael and Gall 3 

Battles and Leaders of the 

American Civil War 51 

Beach and Bogland (By).... 9 

Beaconsfield (Lord) 38 

Beauclerk (Lady Diana) 35 

Beauty Adorned 18 

Beckwourth (James P., Life 

and Adventures of) 46 

Beetle (The) 21 

Before I Forget 39 

Begliojoso : A Revolutionary 

Princess 38 

Behind the Arras (From) 13 

Belcaro 33 

Belle Marie (La) 19 

Belle Nivernaise (La) 83 

Bending of the Bough (The). . 6 
Benyowsky (Memoirs and 

Travels of) 46 

Bergen Worth 20 

Bernard (Claude) 38 

Bernese Oberland (The) 67 

Besant (Anne) 38 

Betrothed (The) 26 

Bible as English Literature 

(The) 78 

Big Game Shooting in South 

Africa 68 

Birdland (In) 76 

Bird Life (British) 77 

Bird Life in Wild Wales 77 

Birds I Have Known 74 

Bird Skinning and Bird 

Stuffing 75 

Bird's Nest (The) 77 

Bishop Doyle 40, 87 

Black Dwarf 215 



Black Shilhng (The) 9 

Blue Gown (In the Land of 

the) 70 

Blue Lagoon (The) 27,87 

Blue Lilies 12 

Bog of Stars (The) 22, 87 

Bohemia 53 

Bohemia with Du Maurier (In) 36 

Bonaparte in Egypt 48 

Bond of Blood (The> 15 

Bossism and Monopoly .... 65 

Bourgeois (The) 27 

Boy and the Angel (The) 82 

Bradlaugh (Charies) 38 

Brahrnans (The) 79 

Brand 5 

Breachly (Black Sheep) 10 

Breakfast, Dinner, and Supper 

(Quickest Guide to) 82 

Breitmann in Germany-Tyrol 19 
Bride of Lammermoor (The) . . 26 
Bright Days in Merrie Eng- 
land 69 

Brightwen, Mrs. (Life and 

Thoughts) 38 

Brightwen Series (The) 76 

Britain (Early) 49 

British Bird Life 77 

British City (The) 62 

British Columbia (,\mong the 

People of) j9 

British Diplomacy (The Story 

of) 6i 

British East Africa 69 

British History (Literary In- 
fluence in) I 

British India 50 

British Industries under Free 

Trade 60 

British Political Leaders .... 42 
British Regiments (F'amous). . 50 
British Writers on Classic 

Lands i 

Brodie (Sir Benjamin) 38 

Brooke (Rajah) 38 

Brown (Captain John) 38 

Brown Owl (The) 83 

Brown, V.C 8, 85 

Brownies in the Philippines . . 83 
Buccaneers and Marooners of 

America (The) 46 

Buchanan (Robert) 38 

Budapest 72 

Buddhist India 49 

Builders of Greater Britain . . 38 
Bulgarian Exarchai^ (Tne) . . 63 

Bundle of Life (A) 17 

Burden of Armaments (The), do 

Buried City of Kenfjg 50 

Burmese Language (Hand- 
book of the) 78 

Burton(The Real Sir Richard) 39 

Bush Honeymoon (A) 8 

Business of Life (The) 81 

Butterfly (The^ 76 

Bygones Worth Remembering 41 

Byron in Italy 70 

Byzantine Empire (The) 54 

Cabot (John and Sebastian)., 39 

Cameo Series (The) 3 

Camera in the Fields (The).. 76 
Canada (Children's Study) .. 83 
Canada (Story of the N itions) 48 



INDEX IN ORDER OF TIThH^Q.— continued. 



Canada in Harvest Time 
(Through) 

Canada To-day 

Canadian Contingent (The).. 

Canal System of England. . . . 

Canon in Residence(The). .52, 

Cape Colony (Everyday Life). 

Captain of tho Li custs (The) . . 

Captain Sheen 

Capture of Paul Beck (The). . 

Cardinal's Pawn (The) 

Carding Mill Valley 

Carlyle (Thom.is) 

Carpathian to Pindus (From) 

Carroll, Lewis (Life of) 

Carroll Picture Book (The 
Lewis) 

Carthage . 

Cartoons in Rhvmeand Line. . 

Case of Miss Elliott (The) 

Case of Wagner (The) 

Castle Dangerous 

Cat and Bird Stories 

Catharine Furze 

Caucasus (Fire and Sword in 
the) 

Cause and Effect 

Cause of Discontents in India 

Cause of IndustrialDepression 

Cavalleria Rusticana 

Cecilia's Lover 

Celtic Twilight (The) 

Century Cook- Book (The). . . . 

Century Invalid Cookery Book 

Century Library (The) 

Century Scott (The) 



Certain Personal Matters.... 

Chaldea 

Charing Cross to Delhi(From) 

Chats on Book-Plates 

Chats on Costume 

Chats on Earthenware 

Chats on English China 

Chats on Old Furniture 

Chats on Old Lace 

Chats on Old Miniatures .... 

Chats on Old Prints 

Chats on Oriental China .... 

Chats Series (The) 

Chaucer's Maytime (In) 

Chelsea Window Gardening.. 
Children of Endurance (The) , . 
Children's Library (The) 82, 

C hildren's' Study (Th e)7 

Chile 

Chillagoe Charlie 

China (Story of the Nations) . . 

China Cup (The) 

China from Within 

Chinaman (John) at Home .. 
China under the Searchlight. . 
China's Business Methods. . . . 
Chinese History (A Sketch of) 

Chinkie's Flat 

Christ and the Nation 

Christian Belief 

Christian Democracy 

Christian Origins 

Christianity and the Bible . . 

Christmas Berries 

Churches and the Liquor 

Traffic (The) 

Cinderella 

City (The) 

Civilisation (The History of). 

Clara Hopgood 

Clearer Vision (The) 

Clifif Days 

Climbers' Guides 

Climber's Note Book (The) . . 



Climbing in the Karakoram- 

j Himala yas 67 

Climbs in the Alps (My) 7r 

I Climbs in New Zealand Alps. 68 
i Climbs of Norman-Neruda 71 

Clive (Lord) 39 

jCobden and Jubilee of Free 

I Trade 60 

Cobden as a Citizen 39, 60 

Cobden, Richard (Life of) ... 39 
Cobden (The Political Writings 

of) 60 

Cobden 's Work and Opinions. 66 
Cogne (The Mountains of). . . . 67 
Coillard of the Zambesi .... 39 

Colette 26 

Colonise England (To) 62 

Comedy of Three (A) 26 

Comingof Friars (The) 51 

Coming of Parliament (The). . 51 

Coming of Soiiia (The) 27 

Command of the Prince (By). 19 

Commerce (American) P6 

Commercial Travelling 86 

Commissioner Kerr 41 

Concerning Cats 4 

Concerning Himself 32 

Confessions of a Beachcomber 66 
Confessions of a Caricaturist 36 
Confessions of a Match-Making 

Mother 14 

Congo (The) 68 

Continental Outcast (The) . . 60 

Convict Days (Old) 10 

Co-operation (The History of) 62 

Corner of Asia {A) 23 

Cornish Whiddles 83 

Corn Law Rhymes 61 

Counsels of the Night (The) . . 12 

Count Robert of Paris 26 

Countess Kathleen (The) 7 

Country of Horace and Virgil 65 
Country Parson (Trials of a) 51 

Courage 80 

Court Beauties of Old White- 
hall 58 

Court Cards 12 

Creek and Gully (By) 11 

Cremer (The Life of W. 

Randall) 42 

Crete (The Palaces of) 36 

Cricket 86 

Cricket on the Brain 13 

Crimean Simpson's Autobio- 
graphy 44 

Criminal Appeal 65 

Criminal Justice (Our) 61 

Criminal Sociology 33 

Cri minology Series (The) 33 

Crimson Azaleas (The) 27 

Cromwell and His Times 39 

Crowd (The) 33 

Cruise of the Wild Duck (The) 14 

Crusades (The) 47 

Crystal Age (A) 18 

Cuba and International Re- 
lations 60 

Cuba and Porto Rica 69 

Cults of India 79 

Curiosities 22 

Curzon (Lord). The Failure of. 61 
Cut off from the World 11 

Diu^nter ol Patricians (A). . . 26 

Daughter of the Fen (A) 10 

Dauphin v (TheCentral Alps of 

the) . : 67 

Dauphiny (Mapsof the) 67 

David the King 49 

Davidson (Memorials of 

Thomas) 39 



PAGE 

Davis (Thomas) A Short Life 



of 



•39. 87 



Davitt (Michael) 40 

Dawn of Day (The) 34 

Dawn of the 19th Century in 

England (The) 47 

Days Spent on a Doge'sFarni 72 
Dazzling Miss Davison (The). 32 

Dazzlini; Reprobate (A) 28 

Death, The Showman 15 

Deeps of Deliverance (The).. 14 

Deidre 7 

Democracy and Reaction.... 62 
Der^vent (Sir Frederick) .... 19 
Desert Ways to Baghdad(By) 69 

Desmonde, M.D 15 

Destroyer (The) 27 

Development of Christianity. 79 
Development of Western 

Civilization 50 

Devil's Half Acre (The) 8 

Devonshire House (The Story 

of a) 39, 49 

Diana's Hunting 11 

Diarvof a Dreamer 14 

Diplomatic Relations of the 

U S. A. and Spanish America 52 

Disciple (The) 11 

Discourse of Matters (A) .... 79 
Discovery of the Future (The) 34 
Disdainful Maiden (The).... 83 
Disestablishment in France. . 64 

Divine Presence (The) 79 

Divorce 11 

Doctor (The) 27 

Doctor Gordon 32 

Dog Book (The) 75 

Dog Stories 76 

Don Quichote 12, 37 

Double Choice (A) 9 

Double Marriage (A) I2 

Doubt and Faith 78 

Drama of Sunshine (A) 25 

Dramatic Traditions of the 

Dark Ages 7 

Dream and the Business (The) 17 
Dream Life and Real Life. ... 26 

Dream Woman , . 32 

Dreams 26 

Driven 32 

Dutch and Flemish Masters 

(Old) 35 

Dutch Towns (Old) 37 

Dwarf-land and Cannibal 

Country (In) 70 

Dyer, John (Works of) 87 

Earl's Cedars 19 

Early Mountaineers (The). .. . 68 

East Africa (British) 69 

East Africa (Sport and Travel) 69 
Eastern Asia (A Brief History 

of) '. 50 

Ebbing of the Tide (The) 10 

Eben Holden 9 

Economic and Statistical 

Studies 61 

Economic Interpretation of 

History .... 64 

Editor's Sermons (An) 34 

Education (Trend in Higher). 78 

Ed'vard Barry 10 

Effie Hetherington 11 

Egypt (Ancient) 53, 55 

Egypt (Bonaparte in) 48 

Egypt (The New) 66 

Egypt (New Light on Ancient) 53 
Egypt (Secret History of the 

English Occupation of) ... . 48 
Eighteenth Century Painter 

(Memorials of an) 36 



INDEX IN ORDER OF TlTh^S.- conlinued. 



PAGE 

El Dorado (In Search of) 70 

Eleanor Lambert (The Storv 

of) '. II 

Electoral Reform 62 

Elgivia, Daughter of the Thegn i5 
Ehot, George (True Story of) 2 
Elizabeth (Grandmother's ad- 
vice to) 16 

EUzabeth (Letters of her Mother 

to) 16 

EUzabeth of England (Prin- 
cess) Correspondence of ... . 40 

Enchanted Castle (The) 84 

Enchanted Garden (Am 83 

Ending of M v Day (The) 23 

England (Children's Study).. 83 
England (Bright Days in 

Merrie) 69 

England (Dawn of the 19th 

Century ini 47 

England (The Governance of) 63 
England (The Industrial His- 
tory of) 55 

England's Title in Ireland . . 64 

England (Mediaeval) 47 

England (Modem) 52 

England (The Monarchs of 

Merry) 48 

England (Parliamentary) 

(1660-1832) 51 

England (Socialist Movement 

in) 65 

England under the Coalition. . 48 

English Cathedrals 37 

English Cathedrals (Hand- 
book of) 37 

EngUsh China (Chats on) ... 35 
EngUsh Essays from a French 

Pen 33 

English Novel in the Time of 

Shakespeare (The) i 

English People (The) 33 

EngUsh People (Literary His- 
tory of the) 2 

English Public Opinion 50 

English Sports (Old) 85 

English VVavfaring Life 52 

Epistles of A tkins (The) 21 

Epoch in Irish History (An). . 53 
Escalades dans les Alps (Mes) 71 
Escapes of Latude and 

Casanova (The) 46 

Essays in Puritanism 79 

Essays Political and Bio- 
graphical 45 

Ethiopia in Exile 71 

Euphorion 33 

European MiUtary Adventures 

of Hindustan 46 

European Relations 14 

Evans (Memoirs of Dr. 

Thomas) 40 

Evelyn Innes 21 

Every Da v Life inCape Colony 68 

Eve's Apple 13 

Evolutions of World and Man 74 
Expositions 77 

Fabian's Tower 19 

Face and How to Read it (The) 75 

Facing the Future 28 

Failure of Lord Curzon (The) . 61 

Fair Maid of Perth (The) 26 

Fairy Tales (Irish) 83 

Fairy Tales from Brentano 

(New) 82 

Faith of a Modem Protestant 

(The) 77 

FaUs of the Loder (The) 19 

Fanny Lambert 27 

Far East (Peoples and Politics 

in the) 71 



PAGK 

Far in the Forest 21 

Fast Miss Blount (That) 18 

Father Alphonsus 17 

Father Felix's Chronicles .. 12 

Father of Six (A) 23 

Feather (The) 83 

Female Oflender (Tlie) 34 

Filibusters (The Story of the) 46 

Filigree Ball (The) 16 

FinaUty of Christian Religion 78 

Finn and His Companions .... 83 

Finnish Legends 83 

Fire to Fortune (Through). .. . 8 

First Aid to the Injured 85 

First Fleet Family 11 

First Folio Shakespeare(The) 7 

First Novel Library (The). .. . 15 



First Watch (In the) 14 

Fiscal Problem (1 he) 63 

Fiscal Reform Sixty Years 

Ago 66 

Fisher Book (The Harrison). 35 

Fishes I Have Known 74 

Fishing in Ireland 85 

Fishing in Scotland 85 

Fishing (What I have Seen 

While) 75, 85 

Fitch (Ralph) 40 

Five Children and It 84 

Five Little Peppers 84 

Five Talents of Women (The) 81 
Flame and the Flood (The).. 19 

Flamma VestaUs 5 

Florence (The History of ) . . . 58 

Flute of:Pan (The) 17 

Foma Gordveeff 15 

Fool- KiUer '(The) 12 

Fool's Tax (The) 12 

FootbaU, Hockey, and Lacrosse 86 
For Better? For Worse?.. 34 

Forest Trees (Future) 76 

Fortunes of Nigel (The) 26 

Four Philanthropists (The) ..18 
France (Children's Study) .... 83 
France (Journeys Through).. 72 
France (Literary History of), i 

France (Mediaeval) 33 

France (Modern) 52 

Franks (The) 55 

Free Food and Free Trade .... 6? 

French Ambassador (A) 52 

French Court (Dames and 

Daughters of the) 48 

French Court (Pictures of the 

Old) 47 

French Literature (Essays in) i 
French Literature (Manual of) i 

French Masters (Modem) 35 

French Society (Heroines of) 47 

Frivola 18 , 33 

Froissart (The Modem Chroni- 
cles of) 61 

Froissart in 1002-03-06 61 

From One Man's Hand to 

Another 11 

Fuller (Margaret) Love Let- 
ters of) 40 

Furniss (Harry) at Home 36 

Furze Blossoms 19 

Gael and Gall (Bards of the) . . 3 
Gaelic Literature (Story of 

Eariy) 2, 87 

Game of Consequences (A) ... 19 
Gardening for the Million .... 82 

Genealogy of Morals (A) 34 

General's Daughter (The). ... 23 
Generation of a Norfolk House 

(One) 51 

Gentleman LTpcott's Daughter 13 
German Education 76 



PAGE 

German-English Conversation 

Book £0 

Gc-rnian Love Songs (Old) .. 6 
Germany (Children's Study) . . 83 
Germany (Story of the Na- 
tions) 47 

Germany (The Evolution of 

Modem)'' 68 

Ginette's H.-Lppiness 16 

Giri of the Multitude (A) 28 

Gladstone Colony (The) 62 

Gladstone (My Memory of). . . 40 

Glimpses into Plant Life 74 

God and the People 80 

God's Scourge 4 

Gods, Some Mortals, and 

Lord Wickenham 17 

God's WiU 15 

Goethe's Werke 4 

Goethe (Life of) 40 

Gogmagogs (On the) 14 

Golden Sayings (The) 80 

Good Men and True 41 

Good Reading about Many 

Books 33 

Gordon (General) The Life of. 40 

Gospels of Anarchy 33 

Goths (The) 48 

Gould-en Treasury (The) . . 62 
Governance of England (The) 63 
Governace of London (The) . 30 

Grain or Chafif 43 

Grand Old Hills (Under 

the) 19, ?5 

Grand Relations 15 

Grandmother's Advice to 

EUzabeth 16 

Grattan (Henry) 40 

Great Minds at One 33 

Great Minds in Art 44 

Great Noodleshire Election . . 14 

Great Pillage (Before the) 51 

Greater Love (The) 26 

Greece (Story of the Nations) 55 

Greece (Old Tales from) 83 

Greek Anthology (A Chaplet 

from the) 4 

Greek Art (Introductory 

Studies in) 36 

Greek Sculptors (Ancient) .... 36 
Green Cloth Library 28 



Green Tea 26 

Gray Man (The) 13 

Guiana Wilds (In) 72 

Guv Mannering 26 

Gwilyra (Dafydd ap) 2 

Haeckel, Ernst (Life of) 41 

Haileybury College 53 

Halls (The) 37 

Handbook of the Philippines. 73 

Handy-Man Afloat and Ashore 86 

Hansa Towns (The) 59 

Happy-go-Lucky Land 34 

Harvey (WilUam) 41 

Haunts of Men (The) 12 

Hawaii and Japan (Vacation 

Days in) 72 

Health at its Best v. Cancer 74 

Heara (Cenceming Lafcadio) 40 

Heart of the Empire (The).. 62 

Heart of Midlothian (The) 26 

Heavy Laden 15 

Hebrew Lesson Book (A) .... 79 

Hebrew Life and Thought.. 50 

Heine's Werke 4 

Helen Adair 10 

Hellenism (The Progress of). . 53 

von Helmholtz (Hermann) . . 41 
Hcroans' Welsh Melodies 

(Mrs.) 87 

Herb Moon (The) 17 



mBKX IN OEDER OF TITLES.— couiiuucd. 



Herb of Love (The) 14 

Herbert (TheWorks of George) 87 

Hermit of Carmel (A) 7 

Heroic Adventure 42 

Heroic Tales 59, 85 

Hcrridge of Reality Swamp. i6 
He that had received the 

Five Talents 22 

High Life in the Far East . . 14 

High Policy 18 

Highland Sister's Promise, ... 19 

Highland Widow 26 

Hill (Sir Ro%vland) 41 

Hillesden on the Moor 10 

Himalaya (In the IceWorld of) 73 

Historic Americans 79 

History in Scott's Novels .. i 
History of Co-operation 

(The) 62 

History of Jamaica 50 

History of the Holy Eucharist 77 

Holland ^^5 

Holland House (The Pope of) 43 
Hume of the Dragon (The) ... 24 

Hon. Stanbury (The) 24 

honour of the Flag (The) 25 

Hookev 20 

Horse (The) 35, 75 

Horse (Psychology and Train- 
ing of the) 75 

Hotel d'Angleterre (The) 14 

Hour Glass (The) 7 

House by the River (The) 28 

House of Arden (The) 84 

House of Commons (Inner 

Life of the) 66 

Housewife's WTiat's What . . . 8i 
How to Arrange with your 

Creditors 86 

How to become a Commercial 

Traveller 86 

How to become a Private Secre- 
tary 86 

How to become a Teacher .... 77 
How to be Happy Though 

Married 81 

How to Buy a Business .... 85 

How to get Married 81 

How to Know the Starry 

Heavens '. 75 

How to Punctuate (Stops) 77 

How to Study the Stars 76 

Hugh Wynne 21 

Humours of Donegal (The). . . 20 
Humorous Rhymes of Histori- 
cal Times 53 

Hundred Riddles of the Fairy 

Bellaria ig 

Hundred Years Hence (A). . . 34 
Hungary(Storyof theNations) 58 

Hungary: Its People 51 

Hungry Forties (The) 62 

Hunter (John) 41 

Husband of no Importance . . 23 

Ideas of Good and Evil 7 

Idle Hour Series (The ) 18 

Illustration of Books (The)... 36 

Impossible Person (An) 13 

Impressions of a Wanderer. . 70 
Increase of the Suburbs (The) 63 
India (The Brahmans of) . . 79 

India (British) 50 

India (Buddhist) 49 

India (Cults of) 79 

India (Imperial) 69 

India (Literary History of ) . . . i 

India, Mediaeval 52 

India (The Mystics, Ascetics, 

niui Saints of 79 

India (" Prosperous " Brit- 
iih) 68 



PAGF 

India (Vedic) 55 

India (Winter) 72 

Indian Literature (Short His- 
tory of) I 

Industrial Influence of English 

Patent System 64 

Industrial Depression (Cause 

of) 63 

Industrial History of England 64 
Industrial Rivers of the U.K. K6 
Inmates of my House and 

Garden 74 

Inner Life of the House of 

Commons 66 

Innocent of a Crime 32 

Insane Root (The) 23 

Inspiration and the Bible.... 78 

International {The) 87 

International Law 65 

Interpreters (The) n 

Ipane (The) 68 

Iphigenia in Delphi 4 

Ireland (Children's Study) . . 83 
Ireland (England's Title in) . . 64 
Ireland (Story of the Nations) 52 

Ireland (History of) 49 

Ireland (Literary History of). 2 

Ireland (Love Songs of) 7 

Ireland (the Past History of). 54 
Ireland : The Patriotic Par- 
liament 49 

Ireland (Young) 49 

Irish Fairy Tales 83 

Irish History (A Review of).. 50 

Irish Library (The New) 87 

Irish Literature into the Eng- 

Ush Tongue 33 

Irish Literature (The Revival 

of) 33 

Irish Memories 54 

Irish Poems of Perceval Graves 4 
Irish Song Book (The) . . 36, 87 

Iron Gates (The) 17 

Irving (Sir Henry) 41 

Isle of Man (The Story of the) . 53 

Is Liberty Asleep ? 60 

Italian Characters 39 

Italian Masters (Old) 37 

Italians (Lives of Great) 41 

Italy (Ancient) 54 

Italy (The Birth of Modem) . 53 

Italy (Modern) 54 

Italy (Studies in the i8th Cen- 
tury in) 52 

Italy (The Barbarian Inva- 
sions of ) 58 

I, Thou, and the Other One . . 9 
Ivanhoe 26 

Jamaica as It Is 71 

Jamaica (A History of) .... 50 

James Shervington lo 

Japan (Story of the Nations) . 54 
Japan (An Artist's Letters 

from) 69 

Japan, Our New Ally 72 

Japan (Present-Day) 68 

Japan (The Real) 71 

Java, the Garden of the East . 72 

Jews (The) 50 

Jews under Roman Rule (The) 54 
ewish Literature (Short His- 
tory of) I 

Jilt's Journal (A) 25 

Job (The Original Poem of) . . 78 

John Jones, Curate 23 

John Sherman 32 

Johnson Club Papers 86 

Josephine's Troubks 15 

Journeys of Antonia (The) ... 14 

Julian the Apostate 41, 54 

J uvenile Offenders 34 



, ... PAGE 

I Juvenilia 33 

Kafir Stories 26 

I Karakoram-HimaIayas(Climb- 

ing, &c., in the) 67 

Karakorams and Kashmir . . 68 
Keene (Charles), The Work of 37 

I Keith's Crime (Mrs.) 13 

jKeniig (Buried City of) 50 

I Kenilworth 26 

Khotan(Sand-Buried Ruins of") 72 
King Leopold's Soliloquy. 63 

King's Threshold (The) 7 

Kingdom of Twilight 35 

Kit Kennedy 13 

Kitty Costeilo 8 85 

Kolokotrones : Klepht an(i 

Warrior 46 

Kruger (Paul), The Memoirs of 41 
Labour and Other Questions 

in Sou tb .A.frica 69 

Labour ai.d Protection 63 

Labour and Victory 41 

Labour Legislation 62 

Labour Movement (The) 62 

Labour Party (The) 64 

Lady from the Sea (The) 5 

Lady Jean 50 

Lady Killer (The) 27 

Lady Mary of the Dark 

House 32, 87 

Lady Noggs, Peeress (The) 

18, 84, 87 

Lady's Honour (A) 11 

Lake of Palms (The) 14 

Lally of the Brigade 20 

Land of the Blue Gown (In 

the) 70 

Langland's Vision of Plowman 2 
Last Hours with Nature.... 75 
Last Mackenzie of Redcastle 19 
Last Step to Religious Equality 

(The) 77 

Latter-day Sweethearts .... 16 

Laura's Legacy 27 

Laurenson (Arthur) The Me- 
moirs of 41 

Law of God (The) 79 

Lays of the Red Branch ..14, 87 

Leader of Society (.\) 47 

Leaders of Men 43 

Lear (Letters of Edward) ... 41 
Leaves from the Life of an 

Eminen t Fossil 11 

Legend of Montrose (The). .. . 26 

Legendof St. Mark (The) 82 

Legions of the Dawn (The). 25 

Leithay's Banks (On) 19 

Leopontine Alps (The) 67 

Lessor's Daughter 14 

Lessons from the World .... 79 
Letters of Her Mother to Eliza- 
beth 28 

Lewell Pastures 19 

Library of Literary History 2 



Life and To-morrow 17 

Life in a Crack Regiment 26 

Life in the Open 71 

Life in Two Hemispheres (My) ^ 

(Dufiy) 40 

Life of an Empire ( The) 63 

Lifeof Man on the High Alps. . 70 

Life of Christ (The) 77 

Light Eternal (The) 23 

Lilac Sunbonnet (The) 13 

Lincoln (Abraham) 42 

Lindsay o' the Dale (A) .... 16 

Links in My Life (Gambler) . 40 

Lion's Whelp (The) 9 

Literary History of America 3 

Literary History of France. . . i 

Literary History of India (A), i 



INDEX IN ORDER OF TITTu'ES.— continued. 



PAGE 

Literary History of Ireland (A) 2 

Literary History ol Persia (A), i 

Literature History cf Rome. i 

Literary History of Russia., i 

Literary History of Scotland 2 
Literary History of the 



I PAGE 

Manors of SufEoUi (The) 49 

Maps of the Alps of the Dau- 

phiny 67 

Margaret Foster 26 

Margaret Grey 9 

Margaret Hetherton 85 



Adelphi (The) 48 ■ Marguerite de Roberval 21 



Literary History of the Arabs 

Literary History of the Eng- 
lish People (A) 2 

Literary Influence in British 
History i 

Literary Life (My) (Mme 



Mariana 4 

.Marionettes (The) 6 

Marozia i5 

Marriage by Capture (A) 11 

Marriage de Convenance (A). . 18 
Marsena 15 



Adam) 38 1 Master Mariner, A : Eastwick 46 

Literary " U " Pen (The) 87 ] Master Missionaries 41 

Lithography and Lithograph- 1 Master Passions 16 

ers 36 Masters of Medicine 42 

Little Entertainments 22 ' Match-Making Mother (The 

Little Glass Man (The) 83 i Confessions of) 14 

Little Indabas 70 { Mating of a Dove (The) 20 

Little Novels 201 Matrimonial Institutions (A 



PAGE 

Motor Cracksman (The) 12 

Motorists' ABC 85 

Mountain Adventure (True 

Tales of) 69 

Mountaineers (Early) 68 

Mountaineering in the Land 

of the Midnight Sun .... 70 
Mountaineering in the Sierra 

Nevada 69 

Municipal Government in Con- 
tinental Europe 65 

Municipal Government in 

Great Britain 65 

Municipal Lessons from S. 

Germany 63 

Musical Composers (Famous). 42 

j Mutineer (The) 11 

I My Home in the Shires .... 19 
! -My Lady's Garden (In) .... 76 

• Myra of the Pines 32 

Mysterious Psychic Forces . . 75 



Lives Worth LivingSeries(The) 42 

Living Buddha (The) 18 

Living Matter (Nature and 

Origin of) 74 

Liza of Lambeth 21 

Locum Tenens (The) 32 

Log of a Jack Tar (The) 



History of) 51 j Myster>' of Laughlin Islands 11 

Matterhdm (The) 71 Mystery of Muncraig (The). . . 22 

Mawkin of the Flow (The) 161 Mystery of Sleep (The) 33 

Meadowsweet and Rue 17 ! Mystery of the Campagna (A) . 14 

Me and Myn 13 Mystics, Ascetics and Saints of 



Media, Babylon, and Persia 
Melpomene Papers (The) 



India (The) 79 

Nancy Noon _ . 27 

Naomi's E.xodus 21 

Napoleon's Court (A Queen of) 47 
Napoleon's Last Voyages . . 42 

Natal (Tales from) 73 

_ ______ ^ National Cook Book 81 

London Plane Tree (A) 5 Messianic Hope (The) 79 National Credit 62 

Lonelv Wav (The) 31 Mexico 50 National Finance 59 

Long Vigil (The) 27 Mexico (S. A. Series) 68 ; National Finance, 1908 =,0 

Lord Maskelvne's Daughter 19 ' Mid Pleasures and Palaces. . 19 I National Liberal Federation 

Lost Heir (The) 16, 85 ; Mimi's Marriage 21 | (The) 66 

"" ""■ " Native Wife (His) 10 

Naturalist (Life and Thoughts 
of a) 38 



(James Choyce) 46 ^ cmoirs of Charles Boner (The) 19 

Lombard Communes (The).. 48 J '^moirs of Constant.ne D.x 22 

Lombard Studies 48 ■il^'^^T-r . '■ Thomas Evans 40 

London at School 80 'Rental Traits of Sex (1 he; 76 

London (The Governance of) 50 I ^^'-^■'l'.th(^ovel. of George) . i 
London Lovers 9 Mermaid Senes (The) 5 



Lost Land (The) 14 Millionaire (The) 2 

Love Afiairs of Some Famous Millionaire's Courtship (A). . 20 

Men 41 I Milly and Oily 85 

Love and the Soul Hunters.. . 17 I Minister's Experience (A) .. 79 I Naturalist (Recreations of a) 75 

Love Cure (A) 28 | Minister's Guest (The) 26 j Naturalist (Travels of a) 75 

Love is not so Light 13 ! Minor Poet (A) 51 Nature and Origin of Living 

Love in the Lists 21 1 ^'''abeau the Demi-God. .44, 58 " 

Love Letters of Margaret Ful- [ Miri^io 6 

ler 40 Miriam's Schooling 25 

Love Songs of Ireland 7 Mischief of a Glove (The) 13 

Love Songs of Robert Burns . . 3 ' Miserrima 22 

Love Triumphant 21, 85 i Mis-rule of .Three (The) 2-J 

Lucas Malet Birthda v Book . . 3: Missing Friends 46 

Lucie and I ' 13 Mist.-r Bill : A Man 20 

Luncheons 82 Mistress of Langdale Hall. 19, 85 

Lyrics (.M. F. Robinson) 61 Model Factories 63 

I Modernism 80 , „._ , _ 

M.A.B. . . . 87 Modern Monarch (A) 20 1 Neighbours 14 

Mabinogion (The) 20. 87 Modem Travel Series (The) . 70 ^ero, and other Plays 6 

Mabinogion (Tales from the).. 83:7^—- ' „ — 

• - - -^Mofi 28 



Matter 74 

Nature and Purpose in the 

Universe 76 

Nature Studies 76 

Nature's Story of the Year ... 77 
Near East (Travcs and Politics 

in the) 70 

Need and Use of Irish Litera- 
ture 33 

Ne'er-do-Weel (A) 12 

Negro-Nobodies 70 



MachiaveUi, Niccolo (Life 

of) 42 

Madagascar (Robert Drury) . . 46 
Madagascar before the Con- 
quest 72 

Mademoiselle Ixe 14 

Mad Sir Uchtred 13 

Magic Oak Tree (The) 83 

Magic of the Pine Woods 19 

Maid of Maiden-lane (The) 9 

Maitland (Sir Thomas) 42 

Major Weir 21 

Makar's Dream 19 

Making of a Saint (The) 21 

Man and Maid 22 

Man-Eaters (Among the) 68 

Man in the Street (The) 12 

Man's Love {A) 27 

Man's Mind (In a) 32 

Man who was Afraid (The) ... 15 

Manners for Girls 81 

Manners makyth Men 81 



Moffat, Robert and Mary 

(Lives of) 42 

Molly Darhng 18 

Monarch Series (The) 53 

Monarchs of Merry England 

(The) 48 

Monastery (The) 26 

Monism (Concepts of) 80 

Monsieur Paulot 18 

Mont Elanc (The Chain of) . . . 67 

MoonUght 20 

Mocr and Fell (By) 27, 72 

Moors, Crags of the High Peak 66 

Moors in Spain (Thej 52 

More about Wild Nature 74 

Mother, Baby, and Nursery.. 82 
Mother Goose (The True) .... 84 

Motherhood 28 

Mother of Pauline (The) 28 

.Motor Car (Thp) 85 

Motor Cars 86 



New Arcadia (The) 6 

New Chronicles of Don Q. .. 23 

New Egypt (The) 66 

New England Cactus (A) 18 

New Guinea (Through) 73 

Newspaper Making (The Art 

of) 8; 

New Spirit of the Nation 

(The) 34, 87 

New Zealand Alps (Climbs in 

the) 68 

Nietzsche : His Life and 

Work 34 

Nietzsche (The Philosophy of 

Friedrich) 34 

Nine Unlikely Tales 84 

Noble Haul (A) 25 

No Place for Repentance .... 22 
Norfolk and Suffolk Coast 

(The) 68 

Norman-Neruda (The Climbs 

of) 71 

Normans (The) 51 



INDEX IN ORDER OF TITLES.— coH/m/yr^. 



PAGE 

Norway 48 

Nun-Ensign (The) 37 

Nutcracker and Mouse King 83 

Nyria 23 

Of Una 6 

Old Bailey 50 

Old Brown's Cottages 27 

Old Hall (The) 19 

Old Man's Darling (An).... 12 

Old Mortality 26 

Old Tales from Greece 83 

Old Tales from Rome 85 

Old Time ."Mdwych ;o 

Old Time and New 44 

Olive in Italy 14 

Omnibus, De 22, 87 

Once Upon a Time 83 

O'Neill, Owen Roe 43, S7 

Only a Kitten 84 

Opportunity of Liberalism . . 6j 
Oriental Campaigns and Euro- 
pean Furloughs 42 

Orientations 21 

Original Poem of Job (The) . . 78 

Ottilie 19 

Outcast of the Islands (An). . . 13 

Outcasts (The) 15 

Outlaws of the Marches 16 

Overseas Library (The) 74 

Pacific Tales 10 

Pagan's Love (A) 13 

Pages from a Journal 25 

Pain : Its Causation 76 

Painter's Honeymoon (A) .... 26 

Palaces of Crete (The) 36 

Panama Canal To-day (Tht). 67 

Papacy (The) -78 

Papal Monarchy (The) 47 

Paradise Court 15 

Paris (Forty Years of) 52 

Parish Providence (A) 20, 87 

Paris-Parisien 71 

Parker, Dr., and his Friends. . 43 

Parnell Movement (The) 54 

Parthia 55 

Particular Book of Trinity 

College (The) 53 

Party Organisation 63 

Passion of .Mahael (The) 1 1 

Passports 8 

Pathless West (In the) 69 

Patriot Parliament of 1689 

(The) 49, 87 

Patriotism under three Flags. 63 

Patsy 27 

Patten Experiment (The) ... 20 

Pan and Carolina 82, 83 

Peculiar History of Mary Ann 

Susan (The) u 

Peers or People 65 

Peking Garden (Round About 

My) 70 

Penelope Brandling 19 

Pennine Alps (Central) 67 

Pennine Alps (Eastern) 67 

Pen Portraits of the British 

Soldier 16 

Pentamerone (The) 82 

People of Clopton 10 

Peoples and Pohtics in ihe 

Far East 71 

Perceval (Spencer) 00 

Peril of Chance (In) 34 

Peril in Natal (The) 61 

Perils of Josephine (The) 16 

Perils of Sympathy (The) .... 27 

Persia 47 

Persia (Literary History of ) . . i 



PAGE 

Personal Matters (Certain) .. . 32 
Personal Story of the Upper 

House, (The) 45 

Peru 68 

Peter Halket (Trooper) 26 

Peveril of the Peak 26 

Philippine Islands (The) 68 

Phoenix and the Carpet (The) 84 

Philosopher in Portugal 72 

Phoenicia 55 

Physiology(Studies in General) 75 

Pillage (Before the Great) 51 

P;nto, Ferd. Mendez, the Portu- 
guese Adventurer 46 

Pirate (The) 26 

Place of Animals in Human 

Thought 34 

Plant Histology (Methods in) 75 

Plato's Dream of Wheels .... 34 

Play-Actress (The) 13 

Plays of Beaumont, &c., see 

Inde.x of Authors 

Please M'm, the Butcher ! 81 

Poems of Mathilde Blind (A 

Selection from) 3 

Poems of Mathilde BUnd'(The 

complete) 3 

Poems of Giosn6 Carducei.. 4 
Poems of William Cowper 

(The Unpublished) 4 

Poem? of John Dyer (The) ... 4 
Poems of M. F. Robinson (The 

Collected) 6 

Poems (W. B. Yeats) 7 

Poet and Penelope (The) 28 

Poland 54 

Policy of Free Imports (The) . 61 

Political .Advertiser (The) .... 61 

Political Crime 34 

Political Parables 60 

Political Situation (The) 65 

Pope of Holland House (The) 43 

Pope's Mule (The) 82 

Popular Copyright Novels . . 23 



Port Arthur (Siege of) 51 

Portent (The) '20 

Porter, Endymion (Life and 

Letters of) 43 

Portraits of the Si.xties 42 

Portugal 55 

Portugal (A Philosopher in) . . 72 
Power of Charactor (The) . . 78 
Prayers, Poems and Parables 79 
Prince's Marriage (The).... 32 
Prisoners of Conscience . . . . g, 85 
Prison Escapes of the Civil 

War 46 

Problem of Existence (The) . . 34 
Problem of Prejudice (The) . . 12 
Process of Government (The) 59 

Professions for Girls 85 

Programme of Modernism 

(The) 80 

Progress of Hellenism (The) . 53 
Progress of Priscilla (The) ... . 12 
" Prosperous " British India. 68 
Protection and Employment . 61 
Protection (Side-Lights on) . . 65 
Provence( Romantic Cities of) 67 
Proverbs, Maxims, &c., of all 

Ages 33 

Psalms and Litanies 80 

Pseudonym Libr a ry (The) 23, 24 
Psychology and Training of 

the Horse 75 

Psychologv of Child Develop- 
ment (The) 78 

Public P>n-se ;ind the War 

Office 50 

Public Speaking and De- 
bate 62, 86 



PAGE 

Queen of a Day (The) .... 15 
Queen of Napoleon's Court (A) 47 

Quentin Durward 26 

Quests of Paul Beck (The)., ir 

Quiet Hours with Nature 74 

Quincy Adams Sawyer 28 

Quotations for Occasions 82 

RafBes (Sir Stamford) 43 

Raiders (The) 13 

Rainy J une (A) 23 

Raleigh (Sir Walter) 4, 43 

Ranch Life and the Hunting 

Trail 72 

Random Roaming 51 

Ranger's Lodge (The) 19 

Recipes for the Million 82 

Recreations of a Natiuralist . . 75 

Red C l oth Library (The) 30 

Redgaun tlet 26 

Red Laugh 8 

Red-litten Windows (Through 

the) 16 

Red Rubber 63 

Red Sphinx (The) 32 

Red Star (The) 20 

Reef and Palm (By) 10 

Reformer's Bookshelf (The) . . 64 
ReUgion and the Higher Life 78 
Religion and Historic Faiths 79 
Religion of the Plain Man.. 77 
Religious Songs of Connacht;, 78 
Religious Equality (The Last 

Step to) 77 

Renaissance Types 52 

Renunciation 27 

Retaliatory Duties 6i 

Retrospect 6 

Revelation and the Bible 78 

Revolution in Tanner's Lane 25 

Rhodesia (Pre-Historic) 68 

Rhvmer (The) 20 

Ricroft of Withens 27 

Ridan the Devil 10 

Riding, Driving, and kindred 

Sports 86 

Rights of Man in America . . 79 
Riviera (Rambles on the) .... 72 

Riviera (The) 70 

Robert Orange 17 

Robinson Crusoe 82, 83 

Rob Rov 26 

Rock and Pool (By) 10 

Rock Garden of Ours (That) 75 
Rodin (Life and Work of 

Auguste) 36 

Rodman the Boatsteerer .... 10 
Romance of the Fountain(The) 19 
Romance of a Hill Station. . . 19 
Romance of a King's Life. . . 52 
Romance of a Lonely Woman 22 
Rcmance of a Midshipman .. i'- 

Roman Empire (The) 51 

Roman Life under the Caesars. 58 
Rome (Children's Study) .... 83 
Rome (Story of the-Nations) . 50 

Ri'ine and Pompeii 66 

Rome (Literary History of) i 

Rome (Mediaeval) 53 

Rome (Old Tales from) 59, 85 

Romola 68 

Rose Geranium (The) 12 

Rose. Shamrock and Thistle 19 

Rosemonde 27 

Rossetti (Dante Gabriel) 

(Letters of) 43 

Rousing of Mrs. Potter (The). 22 

Royal Quartette (A) 47 

Royal Rascal (A) 16 

Rus Divinum 3 

Russia 54 



PAGE 

Russia and its Crisis 63 

Russia (Literary Historj' of) . . i 
Russia Under the Great 

Shadow 'J5, 73 

Russian Priest (A) 23 

Rutherford, Mark (The Auto- 
biography of) 25 

Rutherford's Deliverance .... 25 

Sacrifice (The) 13 

Saghalien Convict (The) 19 

Saints in Society q 

St. Mark (The Legend of) 82 

St. Mark's Indebtedness to St. 

Matthew 77 

St. Ronan's Well 26 

St. Stephen in the Fifties . . 59 

Samhain 34 

Sand-Buried Ruins of Khotan 72 
Sanitary Evolution of London 

(The) 62 

Saracens (The) 50 

Sarah P. G ig 

Sarsfield (Patrick) (Life of) 43, 87 

Savage Club (Thf ) 45 

Savage Europe (Through) . . 73 
Savonarola, Girohmo (Life 

of) 43 

Scandinavian Question (The) 65 
Schiller's Dramas in England 3 

Schiller's Werke 7 

School for Saints (The) 17 

School of Art (The) 27 

School Out-of-Doors (Our) ... 79 
Schulz Steam Turbine (The) 85 
Scott's Novels (History in). . i 
Scotland (Children's Study) . . 83 
Scotland (Story of the Na- 
tions) 53 

Scotland (Literary History of) 2 
Scottish Literature (Short His- 
tory of) 2 

Scottish Senls (History of). .. . 47 
Scrambles in the Eastern 

Graians 73 

Sea and the Moor (The) 19 

Sea Children 83 

Search of El Dorado (In) . . 70 

Searchers (The) 11 

Secret History of the English 
Occupation of Egypt .... 48 

Secret of Petrarch (The) 2 

Secret Rose (The) 7 

Secret of the Sargasso (The). 84 

Segantini (Giovanni) 37 

Segovia fPablo de) 37 

Seneca (Tragedies of) 6 

Sentinel of Wessex (The) 32 

Seven Nights in a Gondola . 12 
Seven Spiendid Sinners .... 58 
Seventeenth Century Men of 

Latitude 78 

Sex and Society 34 

Shacklett 10 

Shadowy Waters (The) 7 

Shakespeare in France 2 

Shakespeare the Man 3 

Shakespeare's Church 35 

Shakespeare's Complete Son- 
nets 7 

Shakespeare Studied in Eight 

Plays I 

Shakespeare Studied in Six 

Plays I 

Shakespeare Studied in Thr c 

Plays I 

Shameless W.nyne 27 

She Loved Much 11 

Shelley in Italv (With) 70 

Shen's Pigtail (The) 24 



Shervintons (The) 44 

Sherwood Forest (The Scenery 

of) 71 

Sh illing Rep rints of Standard 

Novels 31, 87 

Shipp (Memoirs of the Mili- 
tary Career of John) 46 

Shorter Pla5's 7 

Sh-ilamite (TheJ 8, 87 

Siberia , 73 

I Silierian Klondyke (In Search 

I of a) 73 

I Sicily 50 

I Side-Lights on Protection . . 65 
! Siege of Port Arthur (The) ... .51 

j Siena (Guide to) 69 

I Siena and her Artists 37 

Sierra Nevada (Mountaineer- 
ing in the) 69 

Sign of the Peacock (At the) 26 

Silas Strong 9 

Silk of the Kine 20 

Silver Age of the Greek World 53 

Silver Christ (The) 22 

Simon Ryan the Peterite 18 

Simpson (Sir James Y.) 44 

Sinner's' Comedy (The) 17 

Sins and Safeguards (The).. 79 

Siren's Net (The) 25 

Sister of Marie Antoinette(A) 47 | 

Sister Teresa 22 ! 

Sisters of Napoleon (The) . . 58 

Sisters of Ombersleigh 19 

Situations of Lady Patricia. . 28 

Six Girls 18, 85 

Sixpenny Editions. 31 



Sixty Years of an Agitator's 

Life 41, 62 

Skipsev (Joseph) 45 

Slave Power (The) 79 

Slave to College President 

(From) 45 

Sleeping Fires 15 

Slight Indiscretion (A) 12 

Smith and Modern Sociology 

(.'Vdam) 65 

Smugglers and Foresters . . 19 
Social Classes in a Republic. 79 
Social Ideas of Alfred Tenny- 
son 33 

Social Message of the Modern 

Pulpit 60 

Social Reform (Towards).... 59 

Socialist Movement-inEngland 65} 

Society in a Country House . . 49 

Society in the New Reign .... 34 

Society of To-morrow (The). . 63 

Sociology (General) 65 

Some Emotions and a Moral. . 17 

Somerset House 54 

Son of Arvon (A) 23 

Sonof Don Juan (The) 4 

Song of a Single Note (A) ... 9 

Songs of a Sourdough 7 

Songs of the Uplands 5 

Sorrow's Gates (Through) .... 27 

Soul of a Priest (The) 20 

Soul's Departure (The) 7 

Souls of Passage 9 

South Africa (Story of the 

Nations) 57 

South Africa (Big Game Shoot 

in:;) 

South .^frira (Fifty Years of 

the Historvof) 58 

South Africa, Labour and 

Other Questions 69 

So'ith Africa (Little History of) 57 j 

South African History (The i 

Beginning of) 57 i 



6S 



PAGE 

South American Republics 

(Rise of the) 49 

South Am erican Series (The) . 72 

Spain (Children's Studvl S3 

Spain (Story of the Na'tions). 58 

Spain and her People 73 

Spain (The Bridle Roads of) 67 

Spain (Modem) 51 

Spain (The Moors in) 52 

Spain (Saunterings in) 72 

Specimen Spinster (A) 32 

Spectre of Strathannan (The) 22 
Speeches on Questions of Pub- 
lic Policy 60 

Sphere of ' ' Man ' ' (The) . . 65 

Splendid Cousin (A) 14 

Spoiled Priest (A) 26 

Sport and Travel : Abyssinia 
and British East Africa .... 69 

Sports Library (The) 86 

Squire Hellman 8 

Squire to Prince (From) 49 

Stansfeld (James) 44 

Starry Heavens (How to 

Know the) 75 

Stars of Destiny 28 

Stem of the Crimson Dahlia 

(The) 20 

Stephen Kyrle 8 

Stickit Minister (The) 13 

Stokes (WiUiam) 44 

Stolen Waters 12 

Stops, or. How to Punctuate. . 77 
Stories from Fairyland. .. .82, 83 
Story of the Amulet (The).. 84 
Story of a Crystal Heart(The) 23 
Story of a Devonshire House 39, 49 
Story of an Estancia (The) . . 13 
Story of a Puppet (The) ...82, 83 
Story of My Struggles (Vam- 

bcry) 44 

Story of t he Nations (The) 56, 57 
Stray Thoughts of R. Wil- 
liams 80 

Stronger than Love 8 

Stuarts (The) 50 

Studies by a Recluse 51 

Studies Historical and Critical 58 

Studies in Biography , 45 

Studies in Black and White. . 86 
Studies in General Physiology 75 

Study in Colour (A) 27 

Study of Temptations (A). .. . 17 
Suburbs (The Increase of the) 63 

Suffolk (The Manors of) 49 

Sullivan ( Barry) 44 

Sumrnir Shade (In) ....2r, 87 
Sunny Days of Youth (The). . 81 

Supreme iVIoment (A) 27 

Surgeon's Daughter (The) .... 26 

Susannah 20 

Swanwick (Anna) 44 

Sweden's Rights 65 

Swift, Dean (Unpublished 

Letters of) 44 

Swift in. Ireland 44, 87 

Swiss Democracy (The) .... 63 

Switzerland 51 

Sword and Pen (With) iS 

Sydenham (Thomas) 44 

Sylvia in Society 11 

Tale of a Town (The) 21 

Talcs about Temperaments . . 17 

Tales from Natal 72 

Tales from Plutarch 2s, S4 

Tales from Spenser S4 

Tales of John Oliver Hobbes 17 

Tales o{ the Pampas 67 

Tale? of t.'ie Transvaal 72 



INDEX IN ORDER OF TITLES.— co«//j/;/crf. 



PAGK 

Tilp'nf Hnrest 13 

1 a'.v- tnld in the Zoo 84 

Talisrann (The) 26 

Talks about the Border Regi- 
ment 85 

Taxes on Knowledge 60 

Teacher and the Child (The) . . 79 

Temple (The) 4, 78 

Tempting of Paul Chester 

(The) 8 

Ten Sermons 79 

Tenants of Beldornie (The) .. 19 
Terror of the Macdurghotts 

(The) 22 

Tessa 11 

That Girl 28, 84 

Theism and Atheism 79 

They Twain 25 

Third Experiment (The) 19 

Thomas Atkins (Mr.) 16,87 

Thousand Pities (A) 28 

Three Dukes 32 

Three Generations of English- 
women 43 

Three of Them 15 

Threshing Floor (The) 13 

Thursday Mornings at the 

City Temple 77 

Thus Spake Zarathustra 34 

Thyra Varrick 10 

Tibet and Chinese Turkestan 68 
Tibet (Through Unknown)... 73 

Todi (The Range of the) 67 

Tom Gerrard ir 

Tongues of Gossip 26 

Tormentor (The) 27 

Tourgucneff and his French 

Circle 44 

Towards the Heights 80 

Towards Social Reform .... 59 
Town and Jungle (Through).. 73 

Town Child (The) 60 

Tovin 22 

Traitor's Wife (The) 32 

Tramps Round the Mountains 

of the Moon 69 

Transient andPermanent(Thc) 79 

Transplanted Daughters 16 

Transvaal (First Annexation 

of the) 52 

Transvaal (Tales of the) 72 

Travels of a Naturalist 75 

Treasure Seekers (The) 84 

Treasure Seekers (New) 84 

Trend in Higher Education . . 78 

Trinity Bells 10 

Trinity College (Particular 

Book of) 53 

Triple Ent.-inglemcnt (A) .... 16 

Trooper Peter Halket 26 

Tropic Skies (Under) 11 

True Tales of Mountain Ad- 
venture 69 

Turbines (Steam) 85 

Turf Smoke (Through the) ... 20 

Turkey 52 

Turkey and the Armenian 

Atrocities 47 

Tuscan Republics, with Genoa 49 

Tussock Land S 

Twelve Bad Men (Lives of ) . . . 43 

Twelve Bad Women (5 

Two Countossp? (The) 14 

Two Standards (The) 10 

Two Strangers (The) 22 



Tychiades 14 

Uganda to Khartoum 70 

Ultima Verba 3 

Uncle Jem 32 

Under the Chil terns 24 

Under the Pompadour 18 

U.S.A. and Spanish America 

(Diplomatic Relations of) .. 52 
University Problems in the 

U.S.A 78 

Unprofessional Tales 22 

Untilled Field (The) 22 

Unwin's Green Cloth Library 28 
Unwin's Red Cloth Library . . 30 
Unwin's Sixpenny Ed itions . . 31 
Unwin's Half-Crown Standard 

Library of Histo ry and 

Biography 45 

Unwin's Nature Books .... 76 
Unwin's Po pular Series for 

Boys and Girls 85 

Un"/in s Shilling Reprints of 

Standard Novels 31 , 87 

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BECKE. Tessa, and the Trader's Wife. By Louis Becke. (Popular 

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13 NOVELS, SHORT STORIES, &,o.— continued. 



CLIFFORD. Mrs. Keith's Crime. By Mrs. W. K. Clifford. (Unwin's 

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CLYDE. A Pagan's Love. By Constance Clvde. (Unwin's First 

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NOVELS, SHORT STORIES, &c.— continued. 14 



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Neighbours: Being Annals of a Dull Town. By Julia M. Crottie. 

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DEAN (Mrs. Andrew). Splendid Cousin. See Pseudonym Library. 
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T. FISHER UNWIN'S PUBLICATIONS. 



15 NOVELS, SHORT STORIES, Sec— continued. 

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Blake. (ii) A Pagan's Love. By 

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By Mrs. Philip Champion (12) Saints in Society. By Mar- 
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By Rosamond Langbridge. Peacock. By K. C. 

(6) A Drama of Sunshine. By Kyves. 

Mri. Aubrey Richardson. (14) From One Man's Hand 

(7) Rosemonde. By Beatrice to Another. By G. H. 
Stott. Breda. 

(8) The Cardinal's Pawn. By (15) Woman and the Sword. 

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FLETCHER. Grand Relations. By J. S. Fletcher. Author of "The 

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FLOWERDEW. The Ways of Men. By Herbert Flowerdew. Cr. 

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GISSING (George). Sleeping Fires. See Autonym Library, Vol.13. 

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Grandmother's Advice to Elizabeth. See under " Tr.wbridtje." 

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17 NOVELS, SHORT STORIES, Sco.— continued. 



HINKSON. Father Alphonsus. By H. A. Hinkson. Cr. 8vo, cUh. 6/- 
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NOVELS, SHORT STORIES, S;c,q.— continued. i8 



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and Lord Wickenham. By R.H.Trowbridge. 

John Oliver Hobbes (.Mrs. (8) Hookey. By A. Neil Lyons. 

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19 NOVELS, SHORT STORIES, &.C.— continued. 



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KINROSS (Albert). A Game of Consequences. See Autonym Library. 

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LA.NYON. "Sarah P. G." A Novel. By H. Sant Martin-Lanyon. 

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NOVELS, SHORT STORIES, See— continued. 



Letters of Her Mother to Elizabeth. See under Trowbridge. 

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J) The Problem of Prejudice. <^> ^^^^^^ "f ^^''^^- ^^ 

By Mrs. Vere Campbell. ,, p^^'^*°'\^''^"^Th , 

. ^ _ ^ (9) Passports. ByLT. Armstrong 

(4) Margaret Grey. By H. (iq) On the Gogmagogs. By 

Barton Baker. Alice Dumillo. 

. (5) A Painter's Honeymoon. (ii) A Noble Haul. By W. 

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LOCKE. The Stem of the Crimson Dahlia. By James Locke. With 

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LORRAINE. The Woman and the Sword. By liupert Lorraine. 

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MABINOGiON, THE. Translated from the Red Book of Hergest by 
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McAULAY. Black Mary. By Allan Mc.lulay. (Unwin's Green Cloth 

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MAGNAY. The Amazing Duke. By Sir William Magnay, Bart 

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NOVELS, SHORT STORIES, &Q.— continued. 



MANN. Among the Syringas. B5' Mary E.Mann. (Unwin's Green 

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In Summer Shade. By Mnry E. Mann. Cr. 8vo, clolh. 6/- 

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The Patten Experiment. By Mary E. Mann. (Unwin's Green 

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— — Susannah. Bv Mary E. Mann. (Unwin's Green Cloth Library.) 

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MARQUiS. Marguerite de Roberval. By T. G. Marquis. Cr. Svo, 

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MAUGHAM. 'Liza of Lambeth. By W. Somerset Maugham. Cr.Svo. 

doth. 3/6 

Also paper covers. 6d. 

The Making of a Saint. By W. Somerset Maugham. (Unwin's 

Green Cloth Library.) Cr. Svo, cloth. 6/- 

-— — Orientations, and Other Stories. By W, Somerset Maugham. 

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MAYNE. The Clearer Vision. By Ethel Colburn Mayne. Cr.Svo, 

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MEADE. Love Triumphant. By Mrs. L. T. Meade. (Unwin's Red 

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Also Popular Series for Boys and Gills. Illustrated, cloih. 0,6 

MEIRION (E'linor). Cause and Effect. See Pseudonym Libr."ir}'. 

Xo. 49. 

MIKOULITCH (V.). Mimi's Marriage. Sec Pseudonym Library. 
Xo. 35. 

MILNE. The Epistles of Atkins. By James Milne. With 12 Illustra- 
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MITCHELL. Hugh Wynne. By S. Wdr Mitchdl. (Unwin's Green 

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MOORE. Evelyn Innes. By George Moore. (Unwin's Green Cloth 

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T. F.SHER UNWIN'S PUBLICATIONS. 



NOVELS, SHORT STORIES, &cc.—couUimed. 



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The Untilled Field. By George Moore. (Un\vin';> Red Cloth 

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MUIR. The Mystery of Muncraig. By Robert James Muir. Cr. Svo, 

c'oth gilt. 6/- 

MURRAY. He that had Received the Five Talents. By J. Clark 

Murray. (Unwin's Red Cloth Library.) Cr. Svo, cloth. ' 6/- 

NELSON (Jane). The Rousing of Mrs. Potter. See Pseudonym 
Library. No. 36. 

NESBIT. Man and Maid. By E. Nesbit. Cr. Svo, cloth. 6, - 

NESBIT'S Children's Stories. See under "Books for Children." 

NORMYX. Unprofessional Tales. By Normyx. Cr. Svo, cloth. 6/- 

NORRIS (W. E.). The Spectre of Strathannan. See Autonym 
Library. Vol. 9. 

O'GRADY. The Bog of Stars, and Other Stories of Elizabethan 
Ireland. By Standish O'Grady. (Xew Irish Library. No. 2.) 
Small cr. Svo. Paper covers, 1/- ; clotli 2/- 

OLIPHANT (Mrs.). The Two Strangers. See Autonym Library, 

Vol. 7. 

OMOND (G, W. T.). Miserrima. See Autonym Library. Vol.6. 

ORCZY. The Case of Miss Elliott. By the Baroness Orczv, Author 
of "The Scarlet Pimpernel," &c. With 16 Illustrations. 'Cr. Svo, 
cloth. 6;. 

OUIDA. A Rainy June and Don Gesuaido. By Ouida. (Popular 

Copyright Novels.) Cr. Svo, cloth. 2/6 

The Silver Christ, and Other Stories. By Ouida. (Unwin's 

Green Cloth Library.) Cr. Svo, cloth. 6/- 

See also Pseudonym Library. No. 41. 

Toxin. See Century Library. No. i. 

OWEN. Captain Sheen, By Charles Owen. Cr. Svo, cloth. 6/- 

PAIN, Another Englishwoman's Love Letters. By Barry Pain. 

(Idle Hour Series. No. i.) Paper covers, 1/- ; cloth 2/- 

Curiosities. By Barry Pain. Paper covers. 1/- 

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De Omnibus and Another Englishwoman's Love Letters. By 

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Little Entertainments. By Barry Pain. Cr. Svo. Paper covers, 1/- 

Cloth. 2/- 

The Memoirs of Constantine Dix. ByBarryPain. Cr. Svo, cloth 3,6 

Also in decorative paper covers. 1/- net. Also p.Tper covers 6d. 

de PENTHENY (S.) Another Wicked Woman. See Autonym 

Library. Vol. S. 
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PINSENT, No Place for Repentance. See under Little Novels. No. 2, 

PLAYNE. The Romance of a Lonely Woman. By C. E. Playne. 

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T. FISHER UNWIN'S PUBLICATIONS. 



23 



NOVELS, SHORT STORIES, Sec— continued. 



de POLEN. Clairice : The Story of a Crystal Heart. By Narcisse 
Luciende Polen. Cv. 8vo, cloth. 



POPULAR COPYRIGHT NOVELS. 

cloth gilt. 

ALEXANDER (Mrs.). 

Brown, V.C. 

Stronger than Love. 

Through Fire to Fortune. 

A Winning Hazard. 
BARR (AMELIA E.). 

I, Thou, &. the Other One. 

Prisoners of Conscience. 

Was it Right to Forgive? 
BECKE (LOUIS). 

By Reef & Palm. 

The Strange Adventures 
of James Shervington. 

Tessa and The Trader's 
Wife. 
BUCHANAN (ROBERT). 

Effie Hetherington. 
CROCKETT (S. R.). 

The Play Actress and 
Mad Sir Uchtred. 

The Stickit Minister, 
CROMMELIN (MAY). 

Half Round the World for 
a Husband. 



Cheap re-issue. In cr 



Svo, 
each 



FRENCH (H. W.). 

Desmonde, M.D. 
GYP. 

Ginette's Happiness. 

HOBBES (JOHN OLIVER). 
The Herb-Moon. 

McMANUS (L.). 

Lally of the Brigade. 

OUIDA. 

A Rainy June. 
RITA. 

The Ending of My Day. 

Vanity! The Confessions 
of a Court Modiste. 

RUSSELL (W. CLARK). 

The Romance of a Mid- 
shipman. 

SALA (GEORGE AUGUS- 
TUS). 
Margaret Forster. 

SCHREINER (OLIVE). 

Trooper Peter Halket. 



See Pseudonym Library. No. 7. 



3/6 



2/8 



POTAPENKO (J.). Russian Priest. 

General's Daughter. See Pseudonym Library. No. 17. 

Father of Six. See Pseudonym Library. No. 26. 

PRAED. The Insane Root. By Mrs. Campbell Praed. (Unwin's Green 

Cloth Library.) Cr. Svo, cloth. 6/- 

Nyria. By Mrs. Campbell Praed. (Unwin's Red Cloth Library.) 

Cr. Svo, cloth. 61- 

PRICHARD. The New Chronicles of Don Q. By K. and Hesketh 

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PRYCE. John Jones, Curate. By G. Pryce. (Unwin's Green Cloth 

Library.) Cr. Svo, cloth. 6/- 

A Son of Arvon. A Welsh Novel. By Gwendolen Pryce. 

(Unwin's Green Cloth Library.) Cr. Svo. 6/- 

PSEUDONYM LIBRARY, THE. 24mo. Paper covers, 1/6 ; cloth, each 2/- 



(i) Mademoiselle Ixe. By (6) 
Lanoe Falconer. 

(2) The Story of Eleanor (7) 
Lambert. By Magdalene 
Brooke. 

(3) A Mystery of the Cam- (8) 
pagna. By von Degen. 

(4) The School of Art. By 
Is-ibel Snow. (9) 

(5) Amaryllis. By Georgios 
Drosines. 



I he Hotel d' .■^ingleterre. 

By Lanoe Falconer. 

A Russian Priest. By 

J. Potapenko. Translated 

by W. Gaussen. 

Some Emotions and a 

Moral. By John Oliver 

Hobbes. 

European Relations. A 

Tirolese Sketch. By Tal- 

mage Dalin. 



T. FISHER UNWIN'S PUBLICATION'S. 



NOVELS, SHORT STORIES, Sec— con Untied. 



24 



PSEUDONYM LIBRARY, THE.— coniinued. 



(10) John Siierman, & Dhoya. 
By Ganconagh (W.B.Yeats). 

(11) Through the Red-Litten 
Windows. By Theodor 
Hertz-Garten. 

(12) Green Tea. A Love Story. 
By V. Schallenherger. 

(13) Heavy Laden, and Old 
Fashioned Folk. By Use 
Frapan. Translated by Helen 
A. Macdonell. 

(14) Makar's Dream, and Ot?ier 
Russian Stories. By V. 
Korolenko, and Others. 

(15) A New England Cactus. 
By Frank Pope Humphrey. 

(r6) The Herb of Love. By 
Georgios Drosines. Trans- 
lated by Eliz. M. Edmonds. 

(17) The General's Daughter, 
By J. Potapenko. Translated 
by W. Gaussen. 

(18) The Saghalien Convict, 
and Other Russian Stor- 
ies. By V. Korolenko, and 
Others. 

(19) Gentleman Upcott's Daugh- 
ter. By Tom Cobbleigh. 

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{28) The Sinner's Comedy. By 
John Oliver Hobbes. 

(29) Cavalleria Rusticana, and 
Other Tales of Sicilian 
Peasant Life. By Gio- 
vanni Verga. Translated 
bv Alma Strettell. 



(30: 
(31 



(33 

(34 
(35 
(36' 

(37 
(38 
(39; 

(40 
(41 

ir- 

(43 

(44: 

(4, 

(46 

(47 

(4^ 

(49: 

(50 

(51 

(52 

(53 

(54 

(55 



The Passing of a Mood, 

and Other Stories. By 

V. O. C. S. 

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Stories. By Use Frapan. 

Translated by Helen A. 

Macdonell. 

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A Daughter of the Fen. 
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By Rock and Poo!. 

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KEARY (C. F.). 

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1 he Rhymer. 

MAXX (.MARY E ). 
Moonlight. 
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Among the Syringas. 
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The Making of a Saint. 
Orientations. 

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Hugh Wynne. 

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Evelyn Innes. 
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The Treasure Seekers. 
GUI DA. 

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The Insane Root. 

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John Jones, Curate. 

RITA. 

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The Bourgeois. 
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Shameless Wayne. 

Mistress Barbara Cun- 
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Through Sorrow's Gates 

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Nancy Noon. 

The Tormentor. 

The Destroyer. 
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A Supreme Moment. 
WATSON (J. R.). 

in a Man's Mind. 
WATSOX (MARGARET). 

Driven. 



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NOVELS, SHORT STORIES, Scc.-coniimied. 



30 



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Nyria. 
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In Chaucer's Maytime. 
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Three Dukes. 



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31 



NOVELS, SHORT STORIES, Scq.— continued. 



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List of Volumes. 



(I) 



(14) 



IF or full Titles see n 

Rome : From the Earliest 
Times to the End of the 
Republic. By Arthur Gil- 
man, M.A. 

The Jews. By Prof, James 
K. Hosmer. 

Germany. By 8. Baring- 
Gould, M.A, 

Carthage. By Professor 
Alfred J, Church, M.A. 
Alexander's Empire. By 
John Pentland Mahaffy, 
D.D. 

The Moors in Spain. By 
Stanley Lane-Poole. 

Ancient Egypt. By Prof. 
George Rawlinson, M.A. 
Hungary. By Professor 
Arminius Yambery. 

The Saracens : From the 
Earliest Times to the Fall 
of Bagdad. By Arthur 
Oilman, M.A. 

Ireland. By the Hon. 
Emily Lawless. 
Chaldea: From the Earliest 
Times to the Rise of Assyria. 
By Zenaide A. Ragozin. 
The Goths. By Henry 
Bradley. 

Assyria : From the Rise of 
the Empire to the Fall of 
Nineveh. (Continued from 
" Chaldea.") By Zenaide 
A. Ragozin. 

Turkey. By Stanley Lane- 
Poole. 



nder Authors' names. ^ 

(15) Hoiiand. By Prof. J. E, 
Thorold Rogers. 

(16) Mediaeval France. By 
Gustave Masson, B.A. 

(17) Persia. By S. G. W. Ben- 
jamin. 

(iS) Phosnicia. By Prof . George 
Rawlinson, M.A. 

(19) Media, Babylon and 
Persia : From the Fall of 
Xineveh to the Persian 
War. By Zenaide A. 
Ragozin. 

(20) The Hansa Towns. By 
Helen Zimm.ern. 

(21) Early Britain, By Prof. 
Alfred J. Church, M.A. 

(22) The Barbary Corsairs. 
By Stanley Lane-Poole. 

(23) Russia. By W. R. Morfill, 
I'.I.A. 

(24) The Jevi/c under Roman 
Rule. ByW D. Morrison. 

(25) Scotland. By John Mack- 
intosh, LL.D. 

(26) Switzerland. By Lina 
Hug and R. Stead. 

(27) Mexico. By Susan Hale. 

(28) Portugal. By H. Morse 
Stephens, M.A. 

(29) The Normans. By Sarah 
Orne Jewett. 

(30) The Byzantine Empire, 
By C. W. C. Oman, M.A. 

(31) Sicily: Phoenician, Greek, 
and Roman. By Prof. E. 
A. Freeman. 



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STORY OF THE NATIONS, THE.— contuued. 

(32) The Tuscan Republics, (48) The Franks. 



with Genoa. By Bella 
Duffv. 

(33) Poland. By W. R. Morfill. 

(34) Parthia. By Prof. Geo. 
Rawlinson. 

(35) The Australian Connmon- 
v/ealth. (Xew South Wales, 
Tasmania, Western Austra- 
lia, South Australia, Vic- 
toria, Queensland, Xew 
Zealand.)" By Greville Tre- 
garthen. 

(36) Spain : Being a Summary 
of Spanish History from the 
Moorish Conquest to the 
Fall of Granada (711-1492 
A.D.). By Henry Edward 
Watts. 

(37) Japan, Bv David Murray, 
Ph.D., LL.D. 

(3S) South Africa. By George 
McCall Theal. 

(39) Venice. By Alethea Wie'- 

(40) The Crusades: The Story 
of the Latin Kingdom of 
Jerusalem. By T. A. Archer 
and C. L. Kingsford. 

(41) Vedic India. By Zenaide 
A. Ragozin. 

(42) The West indies and the 
Spanish Main. By James 
Rodway, F.L.S. 

(43) Bohemia: From the 
Earliest Times to the Fall 
of National Independence 
in 1620 ; with a Short Sum- 
mary of later Events. By 
C. Edmund Maurice. 

(44) The Balkans. By W. 
Miller, M.A. 

{45) Canada. Bv Sir John 
Bourinot, C.M.G. 

(46) British India. By R. W. 
Frazer, LL.D. 

(47) Modern France. By Andre 



By Lewis 

By Sidney Whit- 



Sergeant. 

(49) Austria. 
man. 

(50) Modern England before 
the Reform Bill. By 

Justin McCarthy. 

(51) China. By Prof. R. K. 
Douglas. 

(52) Modern England under 
Queen Victoria. By Justin 
McCarthy. 

(53) Modern Spain, 1878- 
1898. By Martin A. S. 
Hume. 

(54) Modern Italy, 1748-1898. 
By Prof. Pietro Orsi. 

(55) Norway. By Professor 
Hjalmar H. Boyesen. 

(56) Wales. By Owen Edwards. 

(57) Mediaeval Rome, 1073- 
1535. By William Miller. 

(58) The Papal Monarchy : 
From Gregory the Great 
to Boniface VHI. By 
William Barry, D.D. 

(59) Mediaeval India under 
Mohammedan Rule. By 
Stanley Lar.e-Poole. 

(60) Parliamentary England : 
From 1660-1832. By Edward 
Jenks. 

(61) Buddhist India. By T. W. 
Rhy Davids. 

(62) Mediasval England. By 
Mary Bateson. 

(63) The Coming of Parlia- 
ment. (England 1350-1660.) 
By L. Cecil Jane. 

(64) The Story of Greece 
(from the Earliest Times 
to .'V.D. 14.) By E. S. Shuck- 
burgh. 

(65) The Story of the Roman 
Empire (B.C. 29 to a.u. 476). 
By H. Stuart Jones. 



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